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In compliance with the request of friends^ the 
writer has caused an edition of one hundred 
copes of these letters to be printed for pri- 
vate distribution. 


Paquebot Poste La Bourgogne, 
October 26, 1889. 

My dear Father : 

We are nearly across the big water, and when 
you receive this letter you will know we have 
arrived safely. 

William and Will saw us off. For two days 
it was very smooth ; then we had a heavy ground 
swell for four days, and you can imagine my con- 
dition. I was dreadfully sick, and so was Mrs. 
Fisher, but Kate never gave up at all. It is nearly 
over now, and we expect to sight land in about 
two hours and to reach Havre at nine o'clock 
to-morrow morning, where a special train meets 
us, and we will be in Paris before night. 

I cannot write very well here because the boat 
rolls about so much. How glad I will be to step 
on solid ground again ! We have very large com- 
fortable staterooms, but we became very tired 
of them before we could leave them. This after- 
noon it is almost too cold and too rough to be 
on deck, and, besides, nearly everybody is busy 
writing letters to friends. I cannot say much now, 
but will write a longer letter soon after reaching 

Remember me to my friends in Aylmer, and 
give love to Charlie and Mary, and accept a great 
deal for yourself, dear. 

Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

85 Rue de Boetie, 

November 14, 1889. 

My dear Father : 

The time has gone so very fast lately that I 
had no idea how long it was since I had written 
to you. It was November 3d. 

The Exposition closed with grand illumina- 
tions of the buildings and grounds and the Eiffel 
Tower. We did not see it, though, because we 
all went that night to the other end of the city to 
see a great actress, Sarah Bernhardt. 

I have been at lunch with Edie several times 
lately, and on Tuesday 1 went with her by train 
out to her summer home, ten miles from the 
city. It is lovely there even yet, and we picked 
roses, geraniums, marguerites, and various kinds 
of flowers out in the garden ; they are in my room 
yet, and are very sweet as well as beautiful. 

Her little villa is situated just at the entrance 
to an old chateau of the seventeenth century, 
built by Mansard, and is the first Mansard roof 
ever built. Now the park all about the cha- 
teau has been sold and converted into a sub- 
urban town. It is the most charming spot I ever 

Yesterday and to-day we have been making 

(3 ) 
a tour of the Seine, which runs through Paris. 
Yesterday we went up as far as the boat goes, and 
came home after the city was lighted. You can 
have no idea what a fine sight it was ! It seemed 
as if there were a special illumination, but it was 
not so. The day was clear and fresh, and we got 
pretty cold before arriving at our station. The 
boat stations are quite near the bridges, of which 
there are perhaps thirty or more, over the Seine ; 
massive stone structures they are, generally, with 
handsome carved figures of horses and famous 
men upon them, with occasionally an iron one. 
The two trips on the river cost our party of three 
almost fifty cents. Some people might scorn such 
a cheap excursion, but we are not proud if we are 
rich and handsome^ and we get a great deal more 
pleasure out of our way of seeing things than the 
Queen could in her way. 

Yesterday Mrs. Fisher began to take lessons 
in French, and I begin to-morrow. They tell me 
my accent is good, and I would make a good 
speaker with a little trouble. However, I never 
expect to set the world on fire with my flow of 
foreign languages. 

To-day was fine, quite warm and sunny until 
about four o'clock, when it suddenly grew gray 
and chilly. The river below the city is lovely, 
with fields and trees, gardens and parks, and it 
is exceedingly pretty, even now when the foliage 
is almost gone. 

I have had two letters from each of my Wil- 
liams, and expect another to-morrow, and one 

from you, too. I hope not to be disappointed. 
We are so busy all the time with various things 
that we all find it exceedingly difficult to write 
letters, and as I have a good many correspondents 
my spare time is pretty well taken up. 

Kate and her mother have gone by appoint- 
ment to see a music teacher, as Kate is anxious 
to take a few lessons while here. Madame d'Har- 
menon, our hostess, has lent us her piano, and 
soon we will be very gay in our rooms. Kate 
means to keep the piano in her own room, as 
mine we use for our sitting-room, and if we had 
any visitors she could not practice while they were 

It will not seem long till Christmas, now that 
we are settled down and at work. I wonder 
if William will come over in January. I have 
my doubts, but still he may. We think of going 
down to Nice in January, any way, and perhaps 
to Rome and Naples. 

Did you hear of Mr. James Turner's death ? 
You remember our visiting them in Hamilton 
just before you came to Batavia. He was taken 
ill a few days after we left Hamilton, and died on 
the day we sailed. Will's first letter gave us 
the sad news. He was slightly related to Alice 
through the Fishers. They always called each 
other " cousin." 

Now I must close. With heaps of love to you 
and all the family. 

Your loving daughter, . 

Lizzie McMillan. 

(5 ) 

85 Rue la Boetie, 

December 2, 1889. 
My dear Father : 

It is now over six weeks since we left New 
York, and not a line from you yet ! It makes me 
feel very anxious, for, as I have written four let- 
ters to you, you must have had some of them. 
I wrote you last on the 24th. Of course that one 
has not yet reached you. 

Last week we were quite busy. Went to the 
theatre on Monday night and heard Shake- 
speare's Hamlet. It was very fine, and we all 
enjoyed it ever so much. Wednesday evening 
Edie asked us to dine and gave us a splendid 
American dinner. Thursday, Thanksgiving Day, 
Madame d'Harmenon gave her boarders a genu- 
ine American dinner, — turkey, cranberry sauce, 
celery, olives, pumpkin pie, and lots of other 
things. The pie was good, but not so good as 
Mary makes. I would like one of hers this 
minute. Think of coming to Paris to get two 
Thanksgiving dinners, — for Edie celebrated on 
Wednesday so that we could have ours at our 
own house on Thursday. Yesterday we went to 
the American Chapel in the morning, and a party 
of eight went in the afternoon to hear Father 
Hyacinthe. His French was so distinct that even 
I understood a good deal of his sermon, which 
was a splendid one. You know he is a Catholic 
and yet not a Catholic. He has our faith, and 
uses the Catholic forms, which seems very odd to 
me. His church is very poor, and the house itself 

plain with a primitive simplicity, and he is so 
earnest and enthusiastic in what he says that often 
the people cheer him, when he is preaching. We 
enjoyed it extremely, and I am anxious to go 
again some time. It is a long way off, and on a 
wet day would be a very disagreeable trip. For- 
tunately, yesterday was clear and cold and the 
walking was good. We had to walk about three 
quarters of a mile to get the street car which takes 
one almost to his church. 

To-day is real wintry ; we would think it a 
cold day even in Canada. I was down town this 
morning looking for letters and walked home. It 
was hard to keep warm even walking fast. I had 
a letter from William on Friday telling me of the 
trip he took to Colorado to see the Eddys, and 
of the blizzards he encountered all the time he 
was gone. He took a bad cold, of course, but 
was better when he wrote. Will is getting on 
well at school ; the reports sent home are very 
good. I had a letter from him on Saturday. His 
idea now is to leave school and travel in the Holy 
Land with his family and a private tutor. What 
do you think of that for Young America ? 

What terrible fires they have had in Lynn, 
Boston, and Minneapolis ! Were any of the 
Chutes relatives burned out in Lynn ? 

We are going out this evening to a party, if 
you please. Mrs. Fisher has some Buffalo friends 
living here just now, and of course I am invited 
because I happen to be with them. But I am 
going, all the same. It is not very often I get the 

chance of wearing my good clothes here, so am 
anxious to embrace every opportunity. 

Alice and Kate send a great deal of love to you. 
Give mine to Charlie, Mary, the Chutes and 
Kingstons, and the girls, Eula and Florence. I 
hope to hear from them soon. Hoping to hear 
from you very soon, with much love. 
Your affectionate daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 
Address Monroe & Co., Paris, France. 

85 Rue la Boetie, 

January 8, 1890, 

My dear Father : 

Your good letter written on the 23d came to 
me yesterday. Did you know it was Charlie's 
birthday when you wrote ? I hope you all had 
a nice time on Christmas, and am now looking 
forward to your next letter to hear all about it. 

A few days ago I sent you a picture of Eiffel 
Tower showing its height in comparison with our 
buildings, and also a book with its history. Hope 
you have received them all right. This week we are 
having lovely spring weather, mild, sunny, and 
delightful, with a full moon at night ; but we ex- 
pect to start for Nice some day next week, all the 
same, and don't be astonished if you hear of us 
in Egypt, only we do not expect to go there at 

You are getting very giddy going to the Ladies' 
Circle. Last Thursday night we all went to the 
Circus and had a very merry time. Two of the 

(8 ) 
young gentlemen at the house went with us. 
Saturday evening a gentleman and his wife, French 
people who are also in the house, asked us to go 
to the theatre with them. Of course we accepted 
and had a very nice time. Sunday I went to 
church all alone. It was fine when I started, but 
raining when church was out, and I had no um- 
brella, but did n't mind a little thing like that. My 
clothes are for wear, more than for show. Mon- 
day afternoon Mr. and Mrs. Smith went with us 
to two auction houses and then to an old-clothes 
market. It was great fun. Yesterday afternoon 
we went over to the Bon Marche, the largest dry 
goods store here, covering on the ground twelve 
thousand square yards. (You can put it into 
acres yourself.) They have eighty large vans and 
two hundred horses for delivering goods. At 
3.30 every day, any one desiring to do so can go 
over the whole establishment, which is five stories 
high. All the employes, male and female, live 
there, eat, sleep, and work. We saw the shipping 
offices and departments, the supply stock, the 
kitchens, storerooms, dining-room, bedrooms, 
and stables. It was very interesting but very 
fatiguing. It is a perfect city in itself, and has an 
army of people, 3600, and all boarded free. 

Last night Mr. Smith and Edie spent the even- 
ing with us. We discussed our plans for the 
next few months, and they may manage to join 
us somewhere in a few weeks. If they could it 
would be very charming. 

I had my last French lesson Saturday, and Kate 


is taking her last music lesson this morning, so 
it begins to look like going away, especially as I 
began to pack some trunks to leave here at the 
bankers' while we are traveling. The less bag- 
gage we have for some time now the better. This 
afternoon we are going out to do some errands 
and may perhaps take a drive in the Bois de 
Boulogne. If any one had told me that I would 
be in Paris from the 28 th of October to the 7th of 
January without going to the Park, I would n't 
have believed it. 

Now we must get ready to go out, so with ever 
so much love to you and the family and love from 
the Fishers, 

Your affectionate daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Florence, Italy, February 2, 1890. 
My dear Father : 

Your good letter finished January 13th reached 
me on the 31st. I fully intended to write you 
several days ago, but we were traveling and sight- 
seeing so fast that it was quite impossible. Know- 
ing that we are all safely over the influenza, I 
hope you will not be worried at the delay. 

The next day after writing to you we met an 
old friend from Boston in the bank, Mr.' Mack 
and his wife, who are just on their way back from 
Jerusalem, Egypt, Constantinople, and Athens. 
We were so glad to see them, and only sorry 
they were not going in our direction. Mrs. Mack 
said she was quite willing to turn around and go 

( lo) 
over the same ground again, and they were so 
very enthusiastic over Athens and Constantinople 
that it has made us more determined than ever to 
go there. 

Saturday, 25 th, Alice, Kate, and I started in a 
comfortable carriage with a strong handsome pair 
of horses, with bellsjingUng like winter, and a very 
swell coachman, for the famous ride over the Cor- 
niche Road to Mentone and Monte Carlo. The 
road leads over the mountains and returns by the 
coast, and is as smooth and even as a floor. It 
was a splendid day, and our view of mountain 
ranges, with here and there a ridge of snow-capped 
ones, was grand, and the sea was blue as the sky. 
We got to Mentone, fifteen miles, at 1.30, stayed 
there two hours, had lunch, and took in the lovely 
town nestled down on the edge of the sea and 
sheltered by mountains in the background ; then 
at 3.30 started on the drive back. We stopped 
at Monte Carlo, the noted gambling resort, only 
about three quarters of an hour, just long enough 
to go into the Casino and watch the people at the 
gaming tables for a little while. We were curi- 
ous to see what it looked like. There were eight 
large tables with about twenty persons seated 
at each, and crowds of people around each table 
watching the playing and the faces. Money was 
thrown on in a seemingly reckless manner, and 
generally raked in by the croupiers, or men who 
run the tables. It was easy to see how the bank 
would generally win, when there were thirty-five 
chances to one for it. Some of the people there 

( " ) 

I will remember for a long time. They had such 
an anxious look, and would flush when they lost 
and look so excited when they won. It did seem 
very strange that sensible men and women could 
indulge in such a foolish and hazardous business. 
We were soon on the way again and reached home 
by moonlight, having had a most enjoyable day. 

On Monday, 27th, Mr. and Mrs. Mack, Mrs. 
Fisher and I went up in the balloon, 1200 feet. 
To be sure it was captive, but after all I have 
been up in a balloon. It was very pleasant, and 
we were neither dizzy nor frightened, and such a 
wonderful view we had of the world below and 
aroupd us ! We were far above the near moun- 
tains, and looked away off to the grandest ones I 
ever expect to see. We were very fortunate in 
having a perfect day and no wind. At the height 
of 1200 feet we were perfectly still, and the air 
was much warmer than on the ground. Kate 
would not go, feeling timid about it, and did not 
seem to be at all envious when we dilated upon 
the great pleasure to be derived from balloon 
ascensions. It is the same balloon which was in 
Paris, and I am glad we did not make the ascen- 
sion there, for at Nice the views were so much 

Tuesday morning we left Nice with regret, for 
it was so lovely there and the climate was deli- 
cious. We came to Monte Carlo and spent a day, 
as we were reluctant to leave the Riviera, as the 
coast from Cannes to Genoa is called, without 
seeing the principality of Monaco. This is a 

( 12 ) 

promontory jutting out Into the sea, and on it are 
four towns, Monte Carlo, Monaco, and two others. 
The Prince of Monaco was married a few weeks 
ago, and on our way up to see the Castle we met 
him and his wife in their carriage coming down the 
hill. We spent the afternoon in seeing the old 
town and the palace, and the evening at the Casino 
at Monte Carlo, watching the playing and the 
crowds of people who come and go all the time. 
Part of the revenue of the bank is the income of 
the Prince of Monaco, but his young wife is very 
much opposed to gambling and is trying to get 
him to put a stop to it. I hope she will succeed, 
and admire her for her evident strength of char- 

Wednesday a. m. we left for Genoa and were 
all day running along by the shores of the Medi- 
terranean, in and out of tunnels and enjoying the 
mountain scenery as well as the groves of oranges, 
lemons, and olive trees in the more sheltered spots. 
We spent that night at Genoa, visited several 
churches, and reached Pisa Thursday evening. 
There are i66 tunnels between Nice and Pisa. 
We counted them, so we know it. In Nice we 
were in the old church where Martin Luther 
preached in 1510. Friday morning, the 31st, 
I climbed to the top of the famous leaning Tower 
of Pisa, 296 steps, and had a magnificent view of 
the whole valley of the Arno River and many 
ranges of mountains, some of which were covered 
with snow. It was a beautiful day. Alice and 
Kate did not go up all the way because the lean 

( 13 ) 
made them dizzy. We came to Florence that 
same day, and are nicely settled at the best pen- 
sion in the city. Had delicious mince pie for 
lunch to-day. Kate and I went to the cathedral 
this A. M. to hear the music. 

I received twelve letters on arriving here, and 
have plenty of work ahead to answer them. Wil- 
liam is well and so is Will, or were so when they 
wrote. I must be content now that no news is 
good news, between letters. 

Thanks for your good long letter. Tell Aunt 
Harriet I always mean what I say, when I say 
sweet things. If I do not mean them I cannot 
say them, and I think she is lovely. 

Love to all ; hope you can read this. 

Lizzie McM. 

Dear Father, I hope it is not too late to con- 
gratulate you on having attained your seventy- 
seventh year. I meant to speak of it in my last 
letter, and then it slipped my mind till the letter 
was sealed. Not many men of your age are so 
strong, vigorous, and upright in every way, and 
I am justly proud of my dear father. 

Florence, Italy, February 9, 1890. 
My dear Father : 

Your last letter of the 20th reached me on the 
3d, making very good time indeed. 

This has been a very strange winter every- 
where, cold where it is usually warm, and warm 
where it ought to be cold, and then the ocean has 

,( H ) 
been so stirred up. We never hear of a comfort- 
able trip across the water now. They have had 
very rough weather all winter, and the steamers 
seem to have worse and worse passages all the 
time. I am real glad William decided not to come 
over till summer, for he would probably have 
suffered very much. Poor fellow ! he has had 
" la grippe " too, and said he had a pretty hard 
time for a day or two. I hope he has quite re- 
covered before now, and am very anxious to get 
his next letter. 

Last Monday Kate and I climbed the cathe- 
dral bell tower for the view. There were 428 
steps, but the view repaid us amply for the trouble 
taken. We have visited the two famous pic- 
ture galleries here, where are so many paintings 
by Raphael, Titian, Rubens, and many of the 
great masters of olden times. We enjoyed them 
very much, and especially when we remembered 
the hundreds of years which have passed since 
they were painted, and how beautifully they are 
preserved. We have seen the inside and princi- 
pal sights of at least ten churches here. In one 
are the carved marble tombs of Michael Angelo, 
Dante, and Galileo, in others are the famous paint- 
ings or sculptures of some great man, the ashes 
of saints, etc., all very interesting. Yesterday we 
were in the house where Dante was born, and in 
the monastery where Savonarola lived. We are 
actually living in an old palace where Pauline 
Bonaparte lived after her marriage, and just 
around the corner is the old prison where Savon- 

( >s ) 

arola and other political prisoners were confined ; 
and where they were burned is only a few squares 
from here. We walked over the very spot yester- 
day. A person needs to be pretty well up in the 
history of those times to properly appreciate the 
place. We are on historic ground and shudder 
to think of the dreadful things which have hap- 
pened right here in behalf of principle and re- 

Last Wednesday we spent with a countess. I 
would give her name, only you could not pro- 
nounce it if I did, but she is a very nice old lady 
and has been very kind to us. They say she is 
over eighty, and she still plays finely on the piano, 
with much expression and with great ease. Her 
fingers are as supple as a young girl's, and her 
mind as clear as a bell. She wants us to come and 
spend another evening with her before we leave, 
and perhaps we will. 

The influenza has been very bad here but is 
about over now. The countess told us that one 
day the bread did not come, and it turned out 
that all in the bakery had " la grippe '' and there 
was no one to carry the bread around. Did I tell 
you that our street is only about eight feet wide 
at its entrance, and about twelve where we are ? 
We amuse ourselves when out by going through 
the narrowest streets we can find ; very often they 
are so narrow that two carriages could not pass, 
and in looking straight up, the gabled and pro- 
jecting roofs look very odd and picturesque. I 
believe a person could easily jump from one roof 

( i6 ) 
across the street to another in many places. To be 
sure there are plenty of wide, handsome streets 
in the new town, but I would much rather stay 
here in the old town. It is so picturesque and 
quaint and has so many old associations. 

I had twenty-three letters last week and wrote 
twenty. It will soon become necessary for me to 
have a secretary or a printing-press if this thing 
keeps on. Think of all those letters written in one 
week, besides all the sight-seeing we have done, 
and the average of steps climbed each day is about 
500. A person has to work hard to see Europe ; 
there is so much to see that what one actually does 
is only a drop in the bucket, after all. I am 
always impressed with the newness of America, 
after seeing these old churches, castles, and his- 
toric buildings which are to be found in every 
town over here, however small the place may be. 
A great many Italian towns are perched on the 
tops of high hills, all in a bunch, and were at first 
built in that way into walls as a means of defense, 
and still are used as dwellings, just because they 
are not destroyed. Houses have a way of lasting, 
over here ; they are built to last, and no one ever 
hears of one of these massive stone structures 
tumbling down, as is often the case in our cities 
at home. 

Well, it is nearly lunch time and I feel quite 
ready for it. We did not go out this morning, 
and I have written letters ever since breakfast, 
while Alice and Kate have been reading. I will 
not throw any stones at your glass house if 

( 17) 
you will not throw any at this letter. I am quite 
ashamed of it, and doubt if you can read it at all. 
We all send a great deal of love to you, my 
dear. Give mine to Charlie and Mary and the 
friends. Looking forward to your next good let- 
ter, as ever, dear father. 

Your affectionate daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Rome, February 23, 1890. 
My dear Father : 

Yours of the 3d reached me on the 20th and 
we were all glad to hear that your household 
had escaped " la grippe " up to that time. I am 
glad to know that Mr. Sowerby is not going to 
leave you, and that Eula plays so acceptably. I 
imagine it will be hard work for her to attend to 
business week days and Sundays too, and fear her 
health will suffer if she is not very careful of her- 
self. Alice and Kate received your message with 
much pleasure, and send a great deal of love to 
you in return. We are actually staying at home 
this morning, and it seems very pleasant to sit 
down quietly and write to my friends, instead of 
rushing off to see something thousands of years 
old. We have been here eight days, have visited 
twenty churches, each one having some special 
attraction of its own in the shape of a fine paint- 
ing or statue by Raphael, by being the burial 
place of some saint or great man, by its superb 
decorations, or by some wonderful story about its 
origin. Did I tell you that I have been in the 

( i8 ) 
prison where Paul was confined, and into the very 
dungeon itself? 

Last Tuesday we went to one of the Catacombs, 
forty feet underground, excavated and built as 
a burial place by the early Christians, and after- 
wards used by them as a refuge from persecution. 
There were narrow passages in every direction, 
with recesses along both sides where the tombs 
formerly were, but now nothing is left but a heap 
of bones and dust, which were once living men 
and women ; even marble slabs with the inscrip- 
tions are mostly gone to help in the construction 
of some edifice in later times. We saw several 
skeletons, looking ghastly in the dim light of our 
wax tapers. It was a weird sight; the black sur- 
roundings, the little procession, each with his or 
her lighted taper, which looked like little stars 
twinkling, as we followed the guide as closely as 
possible, well knowing that it would be no joke 
to be lost there, and I, for one, was not sorry to 
see the first faint glimmer of the light of day once 
more. I had always wanted to see a catacomb, 
and now my curiosity is satisfied. There are quite 
a number of others, but I do not care to go to any 
more when there are so many beautiful and inter- 
esting things to see above ground. 

We have had superb weather ever since com- 
ing to Rome, and this past week has been Hke 
early summer, with a sky as blue as only an Ital- 
ian sky ever is. Wednesday we went by train out 
to a town called Tivoli, about eighteen miles from 
Rome. It has about 8000 inhabitants, and they 

( 19 ) 

say is older than Rome itself. The chief at- 
traction there is the beautiful ravine, and several 
lovely cascades. The scenery is indeed charming. 
We descended by paths to the bottom of the 
ravine to see the cascades in every condition and 
from every point of view, and at the bottom 
found a large stone grotto of natural formation 
under which the waterfall rushed with a mighty 
roar. It was grand. About halfway up we found 
a sort of natural arbor, and some stone seats 
placed there for the comfort of visitors, and there 
we took our lunch, under the blue sky and the 
shade of some olive trees, quite shut in by the 
high hills, without any way of egress, to all ap- 
pearance. Knowing there was no place for lunch- 
eon, we had taken it with us, and the guide car- 
ried it all, and our wraps for us. Afterwards 
we drove for about half an hour among ancient 
gnarled and twisted olive trees of immense size, 
to Hadrian's villa. This villa of Emperor Ha- 
drian must have been very magnificent in its day, 
for the ruins are of wonderful length and breadth 
and show many signs of former splendor in 
remains of fine marble columns, elaborate and 
beautiful mosaic floors, etc. We grew very weary 
before we had explored a quarter of the place, and 
were glad to get into the ancient vehicle, which 
might almost have been Hadrian's family carriage, 
and turn our faces homeward. 

Well, Thursday, Kate and I climbed the dome 
of St. Peter's. Kate went as far as the last railing 
where one has an outside view of the city and its 


surroundings for many miles, and I went on, up 
into the ball above the dome, where there is room 
for twelve persons to stand around, or rather to 
lean against the sides of the ball, for one cannot 
stand erect up there. The last twenty feet was 
by means of an iron ladder straight up, and the 
hole was none too large, even for me. It was a 
curious sensation one had up there, so far above 
the world, and I soon had an inclination to reach 
a more soUd foundation, and so was the first one 
to go down the ladder in true sailor fashion. 
Alice waited for us in the church, and on coming 
to the outer air again we concluded to go to the 
Mosaic Manufactory, which is in the Vatican 
building. You know the Pope lives in the Vati- 
can, but as there are ii,ooo rooms in the build- 
ings, there ought to be plenty of room for him 
and for a great many other people and things be- 
sides. The mosaic pictures are made sometimes 
of glass and sometimes of different stones, some 
of them so small that you would wonder how ever 
they could be made to resemble persons or scenes, 
and yet the most perfect and beautiful portraits 
and landscapes are made, which actually seem as 
if they might last forever. It takes from ten to 
fifteen years to make a large picture, and must 
require great patience and skill. That day I 
climbed 956 steps and was pretty tired at night. 
Friday I went to the Coliseum and climbed to the 
top of it. It was built, or rather completed, in 
80 A. D., and was the largest theatre in the world, 
having seating capacity for 87,000 people. It is 

( 21 ) 

a most imposing structure still, in ruins as it is. 
In 248 Emperor Philip celebrated the 1 000th an- 
niversary of the foundation of Rome. It has been 
a fortress and a saltpetre manufactory, but in the 
present day is preserved as one of the great won- 
ders of old Rome. It stands as a monument of 
departed glory. 

Yesterday we visited the villa and grounds of 
one of the old families of Rome. Saw a magnifi- 
cent museum of statues and frescoes, and picked 
flowers in the grounds, — violets and wild flowers. 
These are some of the violets, and I hope the 
sweet perfume will last till this letter reaches you. 
We saw the cemetery of the Capuchin Monks 
yesterday, under the old church of the same name. 
The place is ornamented with the bones of de- 
parted monks, and there are quite a number of 
skeletons, dressed as they were in life, with wisps 
of hair still remaining on the chins of some of 
them, and looking hideous enough. There are 
the bones of about 4000 departed monks there. 

Now I must close. Love to all, and oceans 
for my dear father. 

Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Rome, March i, 1890. 

My dear Father : 

I have not heard from you since the 20th, but 
will probably have a letter on Monday, as we 
generally get a mail then. March has commenced 
as a lion, cold and rainy, but as it is the first rainy 

( 22 ) 

day we have had for a month, we are not inclined 
to grumble at it. We have had lovely weather 
ever since leaving Paris, with the exception of one 
day, and then we were all day on the train and 
did not mind it at all. Last Sunday evening we 
were caught in a shower, but it did not last long 
and did us no harm. Sunday night we had a 
slight earthquake. Kate and I felt it, as we were 
in bed, but Alice, who was standing up, knew 
nothing of it, so you can believe it was not very 
severe. Monday morning we visited the United 
States Minister in Rome, to get some passports 
for Athens and Constantinople, and had a good 
deal of fun over it, as we had to be described, and 
when that was done we found that we were quite 
different looking people from what we had al- 
ways supposed. 

We have seen seven palaces this week, six 
churches of distinction, from the relics of some 
saint being there, or some miracle having been 
performed there, or some other wonderful thing 
having happened on the spot where the church 
stands ; several picture galleries, and one castle. 
One morning we spent among the grand and im- 
mense ruins of the Palace of the Caesars, on 
Palatine Hill, one of the seven hills on which 
Rome is built, and always occupied by royalty. 
As each emperor always wanted to tear down as 
much as he could and build a palace for himself 
on top of the ruins of his predecessor, there is 
tier upon tier of massive stone and brick walls, 
away down under the earth ever so far, and these 

( 23 ) 
ruins all proclaim ancient splendor in the remains 
of frescoes on the walls, mosaic floors, and pieces 
of marble pillars, etc. We spent three hours 
wandering about there, up and down, sometimes 
almost in the dark, where the paths led us under 
these great walls, and then on top of the whole 
mass, to get a grand view of Rome. One day 
we drove out of the gates to see St. Paul's 
Church, the handsomest one I ever saw. It 
has, inside, eighty immense marble and gran- 
ite columns ; the floor is of polished marble in 
two colors and is like a mirror, and the whole 
church is covered with beautiful marbles in vari- 
ous colors. They say it is built over the place 
where St. Paul was beheaded. I wonder if St. 
Paul would not have been more honored and 
pleased to have had the enormous sum of money 
which was expended in building this church used 
in elevating and succoring the poor and needy ! 

Yesterday morning we started for the Vatican 
to see the Sculpture Gallery, and our horse fell 
down on the way and broke one of the shafts of 
the carriage, so we had to get out and take an- 
other. The street was slippery, and that is a 
sign, they say, of rain, so to-day we have the 
rain. In the afternoon we went to the Castle of 
St. Angelo, which was built by Hadrian as a tomb 
for himself and his successors. It was afterwards 
used for a fortress and for a prison. Beatrice 
Cenci was confined there, and we were in the 
dungeon where they put her ; bare stone walls, 
dark passages leading to it, and the entrance so 

( n ) 

low that we had almost to crawl through it. We 
have been to several churches this morning, and 
two picture galleries, and this afternoon are 
going to return the calls of the United States 
Minister and Consul General. After that we 
are going out to afternoon tea with some friends 
of Alice's from Buffalo, who are here in Rome 
for the winter. Next Friday we go to Naples, 
and expect to spend about three weeks in that 
neighborhood before going to Athens. 

William writes that he wants us to go to all 
these places while we are here, and says he and 
Will expect to sail on the City of Paris June 
1 8, for Liverpool, where we are to join them for 
our trip to Norway. You must read up in 
H. M. Field all about Athens and Constanti- 
nople, and then you can follow our wanderings 
very well. 

Give my love to the family and friends ; Alice 
and Kate join me in a great deal of love to you. 
I am quite anxious for your next letter. 
Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Castellamare, Italy, March lo, 1890. 
My dear Father : 

Your fifteenth letter, dated February 17, 
reached me here on the 8th and gave me much 
pleasure. I am glad you like my letters and 
find them interesting, for sometimes I feel quite 
ashamed of them, and think you must feel the 
same. I wrote you on the 5th from Rome ; 


after that we only saw the Royal Palace, the state 
apartments, as usual, but they were unusually 
handsome, and we greatly enjoyed seeing them. 
That was on Thursday, and afterwards we had a 
drive on Pincian Hill, the fashionable resort for 
Romans and strangers on pleasant afternoons. It 
was a perfect day, the sky as blue as blue could 
be, without a single cloud, and the sun bright 
and the air fresh and invigorating. By five o'clock 
it was cold enough to make us wish to go home 
and sit by the fire. That evening after dinner we 
made up a party of six ladies, got two carriages, 
and went out to see Rome by the light of the 
full moon. We drove to the Coliseum, which 
stood up majestically against the sky, with the 
moon flooding the interior of the immense build- 
ing with light, and casting dense and mysterious 
shadows on the massive stone walls. It was much 
more grand and impressive by night than by day, 
and the picture will long linger in my memory. 
There is a beautiful, immense fountain in Rome 
called Trevi Fountain, of which it is said that a 
person going there and drinking of its waters, and 
then casting in a penny, will be sure of seeing 
Rome again. So we all did as we were told 
and had a good deal of fun over it. Then we 
drove past the vast ruins of the Roman Forum, 
with its marble remains of old temples, consul 
chambers, etc., which looked not unlike an old 
graveyard in the moonlight, and last of all to 
St. Peter's. The air was very bracing, but we 
were well wrapped up and enjoyed the expedition 


immensely. It was ten o'clock when we reached 
home, and I had still a letter to write, and my 
bag to pack. 

Friday morning, yth, at 7.45, we left Rome and 
reached this quaint, dirty old town at four p. m. 
We passed through Naples, but having made up 
our minds not to stay there at all, we only re- 
mained long enough to change cars. Many 
people had told us how disagreeable Naples has 
become to strangers in many ways, so we thought 
it wise to profit by the experience of others and 
avoid it. We are not in the town of Castella- 
mare, but above it on the mountain side, where we 
have fine views in every direction, and are near most 
of the places we want to see, namely, Vesuvius, 
Pompeii, Sorrento, and Capri. We have fallen in 
with some very pleasant English people, and are 
planning to take a little trip to these places in 
their company. We will be here till Friday, and 
expect then to start off by carriage first, which is 
a delightful way of seeing the country, which is 
very picturesque. The mountains are covered 
with snow ; even Vesuvius is white. The hill- 
sides are covered with forests, and the lower lev- 
els have orange and olive orchards. The garden 
of our hotel is full of orange trees in full fruit, 
and the oranges are picked fresh just before lunch 
and dinner. On our way here we saw armies of 
men and women spading the fields ; think of 
that ; and the wheat in some places was six inches 
high. We were going to Vesuvius to-day, but it 

{ ^7 ) 
has been a rainy day, so we are quietly staying 
in the house, reading and writing letters. 

There are many English people here, some of 
them very pleasant indeed. The hotel is well 
kept and the table excellent. We have soup, 
fish, beef, chicken, and salad and ice cream always, 
and many other more dainty dishes, and plenty 
of vegetables well cooked and seasoned, oranges, 
apples, nuts, and figs, so there does not seem to 
be any immediate prospect of our starving. Our 
letters have followed us promptly, so far, and I 
hope will never fail to do so. William advises 
us to go to Sicily as long as we are going to 
Athens, and perhaps we may. But we will be in 
this neighborhood until the last of this month. 

Alice and Kate are well, and send their love. 
It seems very refreshing to be able to sit down 
quietly and not feel that we are neglecting our 
opportunities. If we were in Rome we would 
feel that we must go to some palace or church, 
even if it did rain, but here there is nothing of 
that kind to do, and our sight-seeing after this, 
for some time, will be simply using our eyes as 
we drive over the country. 

Am so glad you escaped " la grippe," you 
and your household. Tell Grace and Nora they 
must not abuse my dear father, or I will punish 
them well when I get home. Love to Charlie, 
Mary, and oceans to my dear father. 
Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

( 28 ) 

La Cava, Italy, March i6, 1890. 

My dear Father : 

Yours of the 24th, I think, reached me safely 
a few days ago. We were very much interested 
in it. We have had a great week of sight-seeing, 
but did not commence on Monday because it was 
a rainy day. Tuesday morning we drove over 
to the ruins of Pompeii. It was an ancient city 
of about 3O5OOO inhabitants, situated at the foot 
of Vesuvius, and was totally destroyed by an 
eruption, in 79, and continued buried until 1748, 
when the work of excavation was begun. Now, 
almost the entire city has been unearthed from 
the masses of ashes and lava which concealed it 
for nearly 1700 years. Many petrified bodies 
of men, women, and children, who, in trying to 
escape, were caught by the storm of fire, are pre- 
served in the museum, and all sorts of utensils, 
statues, and even bread and eggs are to be seen 
in the museum in Naples. The streets were 
only wide enough for one vehicle, and the an- 
cient ruts and stepping stones are quite perfect. 
The people of Pompeii were very fond of mosaic 
floors and frescoed walls, and a good many are 
still to be seen in a very good state of preserva- 
tion. Many of the more perfect ones have been 
removed to Naples, for exhibition in the mu- 
seum. One might well call Pompeii the City of 
the Dead, and it has rather a depressing effect on 
the spirits to wander among those tangible rem- 
nants of former grandeur. We had a delightful 
day for the trip, as it was neither too warm nor 

( 29) 
too cold, and the sea, sky, and mountains were 
beautiful in the bright sunlight. 

Wednesday, Kate and I went to Vesuvius. It 
was three and a half hours by carriage, but I 
have not been able to find out the distance in 
miles, from Castellamare. They reckon mostly by 
hours, here. We had a cute little carriage, a good 
driver, and a pair of very lively mountain ponies, 
which flew over the ground in fine style. The 
last mile and a half was up the mountain, and 
was very interesting, as the whole side of the 
mountain was covered with immense lava beds, 
probably just as they rolled out of the crater at 
the destruction of Pompeii. Such coiled and 
twisted masses, reminding one of writhing ser- 
pents, and quite black ! There was still some 
snow in the hollows and shady spots, some of it 
more than a foot deep, and to have snow in this 
region at all is quite unusual, and on Vesuvius 
quite wonderful. We finally reached the station 
of the inclined plane railroad leading to the top. 
The car is open at the sides and has a roof; holds 
ten people, and one car goes up as the other 
comes down. It seemed almost as uncertain as 
going up in a balloon, and we were not sorry 
when we were down safely. There was quite a 
little climb to the summit after leaving the car, 
but there were guides to assist us, and keep us 
from slipping back on the ashes and fragments 
of lava. The smoke issued from crevices all over 
the mountain top, and the smell of sulphur was 
so choking we were obliged to cover our mouths 

and noses. It looked as if we might be near a 
place sometimes spoken of in the Bible. We 
were not permitted to go near enough to the cra- 
ter to be able to look down into it, because it is 
not safe to do so now. Even where we were was 
rather dangerous, as there were two explosions 
while we were there, and great showers of hot 
lava and stones were thrown all about us. Some 
of them were as large as a dinner pail, and I 
passed one in the path on my way down. It was 
a relief to get away from the awful place, and to 
find ourselves once more in our little carriage, 
safely on our way home. In the afternoon we 
met, on the level road, great flocks of goats, 
going home to be milked. They are not pretty 
creatures like sheep, and are such ugly colors, 
but are very useful here, for the milk and butter. 
I gathered some snow not far from the crater, 
and how it could remain there for any length of 
time, when even the ground was warm, I cannot 

Thursday we went into Naples, three quarters 
of an hour by train, and visited the National 
Museum, where so many relics from Pompeii 
are kept, and also went through the Royal Pal- 
ace, where the son of the present king and 
queen, Humbert and Marguerite, lives. It is a 
very handsome palace, and magnificently fur- 
nished and decorated. As we were coming down- 
stairs on our way out we met Mrs. and Miss 
Underbill, who were with us in Paris ; they were 
in Nice the last we heard from them, so we were 

(31 ) 
much surprised and pleased to meet again, even 
for a few minutes. Friday we came by carriage 
two hours and a half to this place. We are mak- 
ing a little trip through this part of the country 
with a Mr. and Mrs. Sevier, who are very charm- 
ing English people. We are going to travel 
mostly by carriage and boat for about ten days, 
visiting places of interest and history, and then 
go back to Castellamare, where we have left most 
of our baggage. 

Yesterday nearly everybody in this delightful 
little hotel went to Paestum by train to see the 
ruins of three old Greek temples about 2000 
years old. They are the very oldest things we 
have yet seen, and must perhaps be the next old- 
est to the Pyramids. The mountains and sea are 
very attractive there, but the place itself is the 
most desolate spot I ever saw. Nothing seems to 
abound there now but lizards, and they are very 
numerous and lively. The ruins are very fine, 
the great stone columns are more than seven feet 
through, and in the largest temple there are about 
fifty-six of these columns, so you can imagine 
what a large building it must have been ; and yet 
it was so finely proportioned that it did not ap- 
pear so immense after all. The town of Paestum 
was founded about six hundred years before 
Christ. We had beautiful mountain scenery on 
the way, and occasional glimpses of the blue sea, 
and the hillsides and valleys were filled with gayly 
colored wild flowers, — narcissus, primroses, dai- 
sies, yellow marigolds, and violets. The peach 

(32 ) 
blossoms are plentiful, and we saw fields of peas 
in bloom. Had new peas for dinner here night 
before last. We saw large numbers of buffalo in 
the fields, but they look more like our American 
cows, and not so shaggy and humpy as the bison 
of California. 

We are having rain to-day, and are glad of a 
good comfortable hotel in which to spend Sun- 
day. I am devoting myself to writing letters to- 
day. With much love from all of us to you and 
the family, I am as ever. 

Your aifectionate daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Castellamare, Italy, March 23, 1890. 
My dear Father : 

Yours of March 3d was handed me on the 
20th, on my return from our driving trip. A few 
nights before that I dreamed that there were 
thirteen letters awaiting me here, and on count- 
ing them after they were given to me I found 
just thirteen. Was n't that odd ? Now I am very 
much in debt, and must do a lot of writing in the 
next few days in order to make up for lost time 
while driving about the country. 

After writing you last Sunday the rain stopped, 
so we concluded to go on that afternoon to 
Amalfi, a town of 7700, reduced in centuries 
from 50,000 people, and beautifully situated on 
the mountain side, overlooking the sea. The 
scenery was perfectly grand on the way, the cliffs 
were so abrupt and rugged in many places, and 

(33) ' 

in others the whole mountain side was terraced 
and had lemon groves filled with the canary- 
colored fruit. Then the sea was always on the 
other side, with varied colorings, and the surf 
was dashing in with great force, and enormous 
waves. Unfortunately, the rain came on again 
after we had gone about halfway, and the mist 
and our umbrellas rather spoiled the views. On 
reaching Amalfi we had to climb nearly two hun- 
dred steps up to our hotel on the mountain side. 
It was the old Capuchin Monastery now used as 
a hotel, and was queer enough inside, and yet 
very comfortable and commanded a magnificent 
view, perched as it was right over the ocean. 
On Monday it was still wet, so we could not con- 
tinue our journey, but the afternoon being fine, 
we made an excursion, by carriage, to the top 
of the mountain, where is a pretty little town 
called Ravello, and the scenery continued to 
increase in grandeur and beauty at every turn, — 
such colorings of sea and sky, of Verdant hill- 
sides and deep gorges, that we were wild with de- 
light and admiration. 

Tuesday morning was not clear, but it did not 
rain, so we concluded not to delay our journey 
any longer. We took a large rowboat with four 
able oarsmen ; our party of five got in with our 
small amount of luggage, and we started for a 
town some miles distant, where we were to meet 
the carriage which was to take us to Sorrento. 
The waves were very high, and none of our party 
felt loo comfortable, being thus at the mercy of 

the great billows, and some of us were decidedly 
scared, although we did not get sick, because the 
wind was too strong, and the air too cold for 

The men made very slow progress against the 
waves, and after about an hour decided to land 
us at a small fishing town in rather a sheltered 
spot, for they dared not risk rounding the next 
cliff, where they would come right into the face 
of the wind. The waves rolled high, and we 
wondered how we were going to be landed, but 
the m.en guided the boat near to the rocks, and 
then held her without touching them ; while on 
the top of each wave, the natives on the shore 
assisted us, one at a time, up on the rock. It 
was a most exciting experience, but the people 
did their part splendidly, and we did our part 
well, too, without any words or any fuss. But, 
all the same, I do not want any more of that 
kind of thing. The reason we had to take 
boat at all was because the new road is not yet 
finished to Amalfi. When that is done, the 
whole drive from Sorrento to Amalfi and from 
there to La Cava, by the coast, will be the grand- 
est one in the world, and can be done in about 
eight hours. 

After we had rested, the men took our luggage, 
and we went in procession up about loo steps, to 
the new road, and walked an hour and a half to 
Projano, where our carriage from Sorrento met 
us. In some places there was only a narrow path 
with a sheer precipice down hundreds of feet into 

the roaring, foaming, dashing sea, and the moun- 
tain going straight up on the other. We all en- 
joyed the walk very much, and felt refreshed by 
it, instead of being fatigued. We had our lunch 
picnic style in the carriage, — cold chicken, cold 
roast beef, good bread and butter, and oranges 
and apples, and as soon as that was over devoted 
ourselves to the enjoyment of the scenery. It 
was the boldest and wildest we had yet seen, and 
really I cannot describe it. It was wonderful, 
and made us feel very small, beside each master- 
piece of nature. On top of the last mountain 
the tramontano^ or wind, struck us, and such wind 
I never was out in before. We expected to be 
blown out of the carriage, and held on to our 
bonnets and hats with main force. Getting down 
into the valley leading to Sorrento, we were not 
so exposed, but all night the storm raged and not 
ten minutes after our reaching the Tramontane 
Hotel, the rain came down in torrents. So we 
felt very thankful that, with our experience by 
sea and land, the rain held off so well. 

We remained in Sorrento until Thursday morn- 
ing, waiting for the weather to clear up, so we 
could go over to Capri, a beautiful island quite 
near here, but the sea was so rough that the steam- 
boat did not leave Naples for four days, and as 
the water still continued to be very much dis- 
turbed, we took a carriage and drove over to Cas- 
tellamare again. We feel very much at home 
here, and will make it our headquarters as long as 
we remain in the neighborhood. 


Yesterday was fine and we went into Naples 
for the day and had a real nice time, but we got 
to the station one minute too late for our train 
and had to wait another hour. However, as we 
reached home just as dinner was ready, at seven 
o'clock, it was not so bad after all. To-day is a 
perfect day, and our landlord says we had better 
go over to Capri to-morrow, so we will take the 
boat from a small town half an hour's drive from 
here, and after an hour and a half on the water, 
will reach the island about six o'clock. 

Alice and Kate have gone to church, but I 
wanted to get a good many letters written to-day, 
and declined to go. Thursday we had a tremen- 
dous hail and rain storm, with thunder and light- 
ning. The storm has been very general over here ; 
we hear of floods in Vienna, Paris, and Rome, and 
much damage done. 

Thank Eula and Florence for their notes. I 
cannot answer them right away, as I have so many 
letters to write just now. It depends a good deal 
upon the time made by the steamers, whether 
or not my letters reach you promptly. If they 
catch a slow steamer, or there are storms, of 
course it takes longer. 

With much love to one and all the family, 
and the good friends and neighbors, I am as 

Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

( 37 ) ' 

Castellamare, Italy, March 30, 1890, 
My dear Father : 

Your welcome letter of March loth reached 
me on the 26th, just after I wrote you, before we 
went over to the Island of Capri and spent three 
days. The hotel there has the same name as this 
one, and we had our meals there, but were in a 
cottage, because the hotel was full. Our quarters 
were not of the most luxurious kind, but we 
rather enjoyed the bareness and had a good time. 

Capri is a^small island, not so large as Middle 
Bass, if it were flat, but being mountainous has a 
good deal of surface, after all. There are two 
towns on the island, Capri, with 3000 inhabitants, 
and Anacapri with 2000. Capri is some dis- 
tance up from the coast, with a stiff climb up to 
it, but Anacapri is very much higher and cannot 
be seen from the sea. The products of the island 
are grapes, olives, lemons, and oranges, and the 
poorer people depend upon their fishing for a 
living. It is a beautiful spot, with splendid views 
in every direction, and only an hour and a half 
by steamer from the main land. To reach it that 
day we left here by carriage at 2.30 p. m., drove 
about four miles to a small town where there was 
a little dock and good beach, were taken out in a 
rowboat, where we waited till the steamer came 
alongside, and then were assisted up the hanging 
steps into the steamer. On reaching Capri we 
had to land in the same way, as there are no 
docks along this coast for steamers to land their 
passengers directly. The sea was quite rough 

(38 ) 
that day, but we got along nicely, without ship- 
ping any water. Next morning we walked down 
to the landing place, took a rowboat, and started 
for the Blue Grotto. It took nearly an hour to 
get there, and then came the particular part of 
the business. We had to lie down in the boat 
in order to get through the low natural arch into 
the grotto, and as the waves were very high, it 
looked as if we might get one in the boat, — how- 
ever, the boatman held on to the rocks, and 
waited till a receding wave left the opening quite 
free, and then we went in with a rush. At first 
I could see nothing, but in a few moments my 
eyes became accustomed to the dim light, and the 
grotto became visible. The water was a most 
beautiful light blue, and the rocks above us and 
surrounding us seemed of silver. A boy who 
came in with us for the purpose dived, and was 
like a large silver frog in the water. The grotto 
is 177 feet long, 107 feet wide, and 44 feet high, 
while the depth of the water is 70 feet. It was 
even more wonderful and beautiful than I had 
supposed. Coming out we had to go through the 
same performance as on entering, and did n't get 
a drop of water. The row home was delightful. 
There are quite a number of grottoes under the 
island of more or less beauty, but this one is the 
finest, so we did not attempt to see any of the 
others. That afternoon we took a drive up to the 
higher town, along a beautiful new and smooth 
road winding up the side of the mountain, and 
overlooking enormous cliffs of rock, and looking 

down into the blue water of the sea. Tuesday 
morning we took a small girl as guide and climbed 
one of the cliffs to the Villa Tiberius, the ruins 
of one of many villas built by Emperor Tiberius. 
This one has a sheer cliff on the sea side, and his- 
tory tells us that he used to throw into the sea from 
this point any one who offended him. It was a 
three hours' walk, and some of it was real hard, 
but we enjoyed it and the views from the top 
immensely. That afternoon Kate and I planned 
an excursion on donkeys, up Mt. Salaro, the 
highest point on the island, 2060 feet above the 
sea. We drove up to Anacapri, expecting our 
donkeys to meet us there, but after waiting more 
than an hour, and seeing no sign of them, we 
sadly went home again. On the way down the 
wind came up and it grew quite cold, so per- 
haps we might have taken cold if we had gone. 
Wednesday morning we took our little girl guide 
again and had another very enjoyable scrambling 
excursion to a natural arch in the rocks, and to 
a land grotto which was very wonderful. At 
2.30 we left by steamer for Sorrento where our 
carriage met us, according to agreement with 
our landlord, and at six o'clock we were back 
here, having had a delightful trip and most per- 
fect weather all the time. 

Last Friday we had another excursion by car- 
riage, over the mountain back of our house, where 
we looked down on Amalfi and the town where 
we were landed on the rocks ten days before. 
We went through the mountain near the top, by 

means of a long tunnel, and on reaching the other 
side found ourselves on a cliff 2200 feet above 
the sea. It was a grand outlook, and we were 
all so glad to have been advised to go there. We 
were away from here seven hours, and ate our 
lunch on the highest point on the sea, where a 
hotel is being built. 

Yesterday we took a charming walk in the 
royal woods, and to the mountain beyond. We 
were walking for three hours, but did not think 
of being tired, on account of the beauty of our 
surroundings. We are having the most perfect 
June weather in March. My window is open 
and the air is soft and delicious, while the per- 
fume from the orange blossoms and flowers floats 
in, and the birds are doing their best to give me 
a taste of their happiness. Underneath, in the 
chapel, the English service is going on ; I can 
hear the music and responses, but not under- 
standing nor appreciating that service, I have 
allowed Alice and Kate to go without me. It is 
much more pleasure for me to be writing to my 
dear father. 

Now I must finish my letter and get it into 
the mail before it is too late. With much love 
to one and all, and your dear self in particular, 
Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Had a dear good letter from Minnie Kingston 
a few days ago, and will answer it as soon as I 
can. In one week I had twenty- four letters, so 
you see I am having my hands full. 

(41 ) 

Taormina, Sicily, April 14, 1890. 
My dear Father : 

I am a little late in writing this time, but could 
not help it, as we have been so busy sight-seeing 
and traveling since leaving Castellamare last 
Monday morning. We drove into Naples, sev- 
enteen miles, and reached there about noon. 
After buying tickets to Palermo, going to the 
bank, having lunch, and doing a little shopping, 
we rowed out to the steamer in the harbor about 
four p. M. and sailed at five o'clock for Palermo. 
Naples looked very beautiful in the evening 
light, and as we passed our beloved Castellamare 
the sun seemed to be casting his evening rays 
especially on that one spot, as if to give us a 
parting benediction. We had a perfectly smooth 
voyage, and landed at Palermo on Tuesday 
morning at nine o'clock, in a rainstorm. All the 
time of our stay in Palermo the weather was like 
April, and so it was quite proper because it was 
April, but we managed to see the town pretty 
thoroughly between the showers, and did not get 
wet at all. We visited the palace and went 
to the top of it for a view of the city, and 
also climbed to the top of a cathedral outside 
the town on the hillside, and had another fine 
view from that point. The morning we left 
we drove to a villa in another direction and 
climbed up a pebbly path to a high point, and 
had another good view. The harbor is very 
pretty, and the town looks very picturesque, 
from an elevation. There are some very hand- 

some streets and buildings, and a population of 
245,000. In the museum we saw pottery which 
dates back 600 years before Christ. We left on 
Friday at 2.50 by train for Girgenti, a town of 
21,300 inhabitants, on the southern coast of 
Sicily, looking towards Africa, and visited usually 
on account of the ruins of famous old Greek 
temples, which were built about 600 years before 
Christ. Some of them are very well preserved 
still, and speak of the riches and grandeur of 
those old times, while others are masses of ruins, 
caused by an earthquake. The country around 
these old ruins is beautiful, very hilly and fertile. 
The chief product of the country is sulphur, of 
which there are great mines in some places where 
nothing seems to grow. There are no trees in the 
sulphur district and very little vegetation of any 
kind, so that part of Sicily looks bleak and bar- 
ren. There are large lemon, olive, fig, and almond 
orchards on the island, and in the great plain at 
the foot of Mount Etna grape-growing seems to 
be the principal industry. I inclose a sample of 
the Sicilian clover, which is fed to the donkeys. 
The hillsides covered with it present a most beau- 
tiful appearance. The leaf is quite different from 
that of American clover, too, but this morning 
I found some white clover exactly like ours, in 
flower, leaf, and perfume. 

Our journey from Girgenti to Taormina was 
very interesting, but very tedious, as it took us 
from nine o'clock in the morning till 9.30 at 
night to come 143 miles. The country is very 

(43 ) 
mountainous, and when I tell you that we came 
through thirty-one tunnels during the day you 
can realize the fact of there being a good many 
mountains. About 4.30 Mount Etna burst 
upon us, and we had been looking at this great 
white cloud for some time before we realized that 
it was really Etna. It was glistening in the sun- 
light, with its crown of eternal snow, while soft 
fleecy clouds enveloped its sides, and it was hard 
to tell which was mountain and which was cloud. 
Being surrounded with level country, while the 
other mountains are close together, makes it 
appear even more majestic than it would other- 
wise, yet it is 10,835 ^^^^ high, and seems to be 
almost set in the clouds. We had a gorgeous 
sunset, where the sky seemed like a sea of liquid 
fire, and then the afterglow on the mountain was 
wonderful. Only on snow mountains does one 
ever get the rosy glow of the setting sun, and 
this was perfection. 

This morning we have been to a very high 
point above this town for the view. The town it- 
self is 380 feet above the sea, and this point where 
we climbed this morning is much higher. They 
say the finest view in Europe is from this spot, 
and certainly I never expect to see anything more 
magnificent, no matter where I go. We looked 
down on the beautiful blue sea, with its shore 
going out in points, and saw Italy and its snow 
peaks in the distance, while on the other side was 
Etna, looking more like a fairy mountain of the 
imagination than a genuine great volcanic moun- 

(44 ) 
tain. It has not had an eruption for four years, 
but that one was terrible. We saw fields of lava 
in passing Catania yesterday, and as we go back 
there to-morrow in order to sail from there for 
Athens on Wednesday, we expect to see a good 
deal of the remains of that last eruption. 

We are having perfect weather now; the sun is 
warm and bright, and we are going to a high hill 
this evening for the sunset on Etna. There are 
very few cattle in Sicily; the milk we use is goats* 
milk, and the butter comes from a distance. The 
Sicilian language is quite different from the Italian, 
but we get along, with French and English. 

Again we are housed in an old convent. It is 
kept by an Englishman, and even the servants 
are English, while the food is quite homelike. It 
has a splendid location, overlooking the sea, and 
from the gate we can see Etna, — that is where 
we are going in the morning to see the sunrise. 
In a few minutes we are going for a drive, so I 
must end my letter. I cannot hear from you 
again till we reach Constantinople, about the 25th 
of the month. This old convent -is very odd and 
picturesque ; I wish I could give you an idea of 
it, but that is impossible. We are so comfort- 
able here that we do not want to go away, but 
must to-morrow. Hoping you are all well and 
happy, with a great deal of love to all, and to you 
in particular. 

Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

(45 ) 

Athens, Greece, April 20, 1890. 

My dear Father : 

My last letter was written from Taormina, 
Sicily, on the 14th. We had a charming time 
there, and enjoyed greatly the views of the fine 
mountainous coast and Mount Etna. Tuesday, 
15th, after lunch, we took the train for Catania, 
the nearest large town to the mountain, and the 
port from which we sailed for Athens. Catania 
is a handsome town with 85,000 inhabitants. 
From our hotel windows we had a full view of 
Etna, and from several high points about the 
town we also had splendid glimpses of the won- 
derful mountain. There are large lava fields in 
and about the town, from the last eruption four 
years ago, and these huge black masses give the 
place a rather dreary look. 

At noon on the i6th, Wednesday, we were on 
board the steamer Gottardo, bound for Athens. 
As the boat receded from the land, the mountain 
seemed to grow higher and larger, and the last 
view was, to my mind, the grandest of all. On 
account of the large quantities of snow on the 
mountain, no ascents are made until about mid- 
summer, otherwise I would have been very much 
tempted to climb to the summit. 

We had a medium voyage of two days to reach 
Athens, but Alice and I were both sick, and glad 
enough to reach land again. We landed as usual, 
in small boats, at Piraeus, the seaport of Athens, 
about five miles from here, and after passing the 
custom-house safely, we took a carriage and drove 

over instead of coming by train. We are com- 
fortably settled in a very good hotel, of which 
there are many, and all full of English, German, 
and American travelers. All the waiters and 
people of the hotel speak some English, so our 
Greek does not need to come into play. 

Athens is quite a modern looking town, except- 
ing in the old part, and where the ruins are, but 
it was large enough for us to lose ourselves yes- 
terday, in taking a walk. The streets are wide 
and clean mostly, and the buildings are of white 
marble ; the pavements are of the same, as 
marble is more common here than wood. The 
shores of Greece are rugged, barren, and hilly, 
but not particularly beautiful, because there is 
very little verdure or cultivation, and no trees of 
any account. The outskirts of the town are not 
pretty either, but there are fine gardens and some 
public parks in the city, and some avenues of 
pepper trees. The dress of the people is very 
picturesque and interesting and has a good deal 
of variety and color. The inclosed picture is of a 
peasant, but the men are the most striking in their 
costumes, — many of them are dressed in white, 
with a full white petticoat well starched, which 
falls halfway to the knees, and a dark, beautifully 
embroidered sort of vest. 

We drove about yesterday morning to get 
an idea of the place, and to see the famous old 
Greek temples. The Acropolis is about 200 
feet high, and has the Parthenon and a good many 
other temples on it. The Parthenon is the best 

preserved, and is very majestic and imposing with 
its immense white marble columns and grand pro- 
portions. Mars Hill is just opposite, only a few 
hundred yards away, and to-morrow 1 expect to 
stand on the spot where Paul preached his famous 
sermon to the Athenians. It seems almost im- 
possible to believe that I am really in this city 
of Athens, whose real age history has never 
been able to discover, whose ruins date 600 years 
before Christ, and where St. Paul stayed and 
preached to the people of Greece. 

This morning Kate and I went to two 
churches, — first to the Russian, which is just 
about the same as the Greek Church, and has the 
forms and ceremonies common to all Catholic 
churches, but which is very impressive here. 
While we were there we saw a friend whom we 
met at our boarding house in Paris last winter. 
Dr. Kords, of Chicago, an artist and a very fine 
man, who has been to the Holy Land, Egypt, 
and Constantinople, and is just on his way back 
to Italy. We were so surprised and pleased to 
meet him again, and he has spent an hour with 
us this afternoon, recounting his various expe- 

We were expecting to sail for Constantinople 
on Wednesday, but could not get accommoda- 
tions, the boats are so crowded just now. So 
we leave on Friday instead, and go by way of 
Smyrna, where we will spend six hours. We 
wanted to go there, but had given up the idea, 
and now must go that way in spite of ourselves. 

(48 ) 
Mails leave Athens only three times a week, so 
this letter will not be very prompt in reaching 
you. Do not be anxious when you do not hear, 
for mails are very uncertain in this part of the 
world. The weather is very warm here, just like 
June or July at home, but the nights are cool 
and delightful. We enjoy seeing these new and 
(to us) strange scenes, and I am making a collec- 
tion of photographs to remind me of what I 
have seen, when again on your side of the water. 
Love to all, and to you most of all, dear 

Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Constantinople, Turkey, April 29, 1890. 
My dear Father ; 

The past week has been so full of interesting 
events that I scarcely know where to begin, and 
may not be ready to make an end of it, either. 
So, having made my little excuse, and warned 
you of what may happen, I will proceed to give 
you an account of our doings and journeyings 
since writing you last on the 20th from Athens. 

Monday morning, the 21st, we drove to the 
Acropolis and explored the ancient ruins of old 
temples more than 2500 years old. The largest 
and most perfect of these is the Parthenon, of 
which there remain standing perhaps seventy-five 
enormous marble columns out of ninety-eight, the 
original number. These grayish, fluted columns 
are more than six feet in diameter, and hundreds 

of years ago were pure white, glistening in the 
sunlight. The carved figures and friezes and 
most of the decorations have been taken away to 
the British Museum, London, but if the mere 
ruins and fragments are so grand, how magnifi- 
cent must the hill have appeared before war, time, 
and the grasping hand of man wrought such de- 
struction there ! 

The hill of Acropolis is 200 feet high, much 
higher and larger than Mars Hill, which is only a 
few hundred yards distant, and when Paul stood 
there and said to the Athenians : " Ye men of 
Athens, I perceive that in all things ye are too 
superstitious," no doubt he directed their atten- 
tion, by a wave of the hand, to the splendid tem- 
ples opposite. We crossed over to Mars Hill, 
and I stood on the spot where St. Paul is said to 
have stood on that interesting occasion mentioned 
in the 17th chapter of Acts. There were some 
other tourists on the hill at the same time, and 
one gentleman, a minister I believe, read the 
words of St. Paul to us, which made the scene 
quite an impressive one. 

That afternoon we drove out of the city about 
fifteen miles to see the ruins of the temples of 
Eleusis, which are much older than those in 
Athens. They had evidently been very large 
and magnificent, judging from the remains of 
immense marble columns, and fine carving, but 
the whole place was a mass of broken and de- 
faced marble, which covered acres of ground. 
The drive was delightful and the country very 

( 50) 
pretty and interesting. It was warm when we 
left the hotel, and looked like rain, but before 
we came back the sky was clear and the air so 
cool that we were glad to have the carriage closed. 
We saw quite a number of shepherds about the 
country, with their crooks, watching their flocks. 
The sheep were quite different from ours, and 
the goats much larger than those we saw in Italy, 
but the lambs and kids were playful and cute. 

The next day we felt the effect of so much 
sight-seeing, and as the wind was high and 
the dust intensely disagreeable, we remained at 
home; but Wednesday morning Kate and I 
climbed a hill near the city, 900 feet high, to get 
the view, and a fine one it was. Afterwards we 
saw a number of things, and then rested till the 
cool of the afternoon, when we went to the Acro- 
polis for the sunset. While on the Hill we had 
soft light on the surrounding hills, while the sky 
was a deep blue, and then we went down to an- 
other temple nearer the town and stood among 
the splendid columns and watched the sun sink 
behind the Parthenon in a liquid sea of golden 
glory, while the opposite hillsides became a deep 
pink color. It was wonderful, and we could 
scarcely restrain our enthusiasm enough to seem 
like peaceable, law-abiding American citizens. 
Thursday we also spent in sight-seeing, going 
to several museums of antiquity, among others to 
the collection of Dr. Schliemann, who believes 
he has located the site of ancient Troy, and in 
his excavations has found many valuable, quaint. 

( sO 

and wonderful old remains of past richness and 

On Friday, 25th, we left Athens with real re- 
gret, and drove to Piraeus, the seaport, and sailed 
for Smyrna at four the same afternoon. We had 
dreaded the trip very much, having been so mis- 
erable on the way to Athens, but met with a 
pleasant disappointment in being perfectly well 
all the time. The sea was quiet, the air deli- 
cious, the boat large, steady, and our staterooms 
very comfortable, while the officers and several 
of the passengers were most attentive and kind 
in looking after us. We had on board many 
nations represented. There was an Egyptian 
prince, brother to the Khedive, who looked like 
any other ordinary-looking man ; then there were 
Greeks and Turks, the latter in their native dress 
generally, priests, etc. The steamer was one of 
the Egyptian Line, and had all kinds of men as 
crew and officers, but one of the latter was an 
Englishman and gave us a good deal of informa- 
tion about the country. 

Saturday morning at eleven o'clock we reached 
Smyrna, and as soon as the boat stopped there 
we were surrounded by small boats, some full 
of people expecting to meet friends, and others 
wanting passengers. It was an odd and amus- 
ing sight, and we almost forgot that we wanted 
to go on shore, we were so much entertained 
watching the crowd. Finally we found a drago- 
man who spoke English ; he found a boat and 
managed to get us into it without losing any of 


US overboard, which was rather astonishing, as we 
had to cross several boats on the way to ours, 
— and soon we were in Asia. It was a glori- 
ous day, but very warm in Smyrna, which is 
much shut in by the hills on every side excepting 
that of the sea. We got a carriage and drove all 
over the old town, through the narrowest, rough- 
est, dirtiest, most picturesque and thickly popu- 
lated streets one could well imagine. These were 
the bazaars one always hears about in connection 
with these old Eastern cities. We often had to 
walk, and met, during these walks, a great many 
camels laden with goods. The camels go in pro- 
cession, with a rope stretching from one to an- 
other, and the last camel has a bell on his neck. 
They are in lines of six, and march along in a 
most dignified and stately manner. We counted 
more than one hundred camels, during the few 
hours we spent in Smyrna. We saw Greeks, 
Turks, Nubians, Jews, Armenians, and Egyp- 
tians, all in their native costumes, and many Turk- 
ish women in their masks and veils, looking very 

Smyrna has nearly 300,000 inhabitants and is 
finely situated ; it has a good harbor, but much 
too small for the necessities of the place. We 
left for Constantinople at six Saturday evening, 
and at midnight we tied up at Mitylene, where 
Paul stopped on one of his journeys, recorded in 
Acts XX. We were there only a few hours, how- 
ever, and during Sunday passed through the Dar- 
danelles, and saw the spot where Xerxes had his 

( 53 ) 
bridge of boats. Now there are Turkish forts and 
fortifications all about that part of the Darda- 
nelles, and woe to any daring man-of-war that 
tries to pass them. 

Sunday night we were on the Sea of Marmora, 
and reached Constantinople at five o'clock Mon- 
day morning. At four we were all on deck to 
get the first view of the city as we entered the 
Golden Horn. It was a grand sight, and when 
the rosy light had grown brighter and brighter, 
and then when the sun made his appearance over 
the distant hills, illuminating the windows and 
domes of the great city, I thought I had never 
seen anything more beautiful. By six o'clock we 
had shown our passports for the first time, had 
passed the customs without having to open a 
single bag, and were safely anchored at the hotel. 

On the way up from the wharf, during a walk 
of about ten minutes, I counted 119 dogs lying 
in the street and on the pavement. The dogs of 
Constantinople are a part of it. None are ever 
killfed, for that is against the religion of the Turks. 
They consider it a crime to kill a dog, and very 
unlucky to see one killed by any one else. 

As soon as the banks were open we went for 
our mail, and my share was twenty-eight letters 
and a magazine. It took me three hours to read 
my letters, and bids fair to take weeks to answer 
them. Three were from you, and it gave me 
great pleasure and satisfaction, to know that you 
were all well. 

We took a drive yesterday afternoon and saw 

( 54) 
how large and how beautifully situated is Con- 
stantinople. It has 1 ,500,000 people, and it seems 
as if they all spend most of their time on the 
street. To-day we have had a carriage and a dra- 
goman, and have been busy seeing mosques and 
bazaars and wonderfully interesting things gen- 
erally. The Sultan has a good many palaces, but 
I do not know how many. These palaces, bar- 
racks, and public buildings are very fine, and the 
city is looking its best just now. It is the season 
of Lent just at present, at least it corresponds to 
the English Lent, and good Turks only eat once 
a day, — after sunset. This evening we attended 
service at St. Sophia's, the largest and oldest 
mosque here, and very handsome. As we drove 
over to Stamboul, which is the old part of the 
city and where most everything of especial inter- 
est is to be found, the four slender high towers 
(called minarets) of St. Sophia's were lighted up 
and looked beautiful. We, being heretics, were 
only allowed to look down upon the worshipers 
from the gallery. The service consists of some 
reading from the Koran in a chant or sing-song 
tone ; the people bowing, then kneeling, and 
then touching their heads to the ground, all in 
unison. This is repeated a great many times, with 
intervals between. To me it looked most ludi- 
crous, with nothing solemn or impressive about 
it. We soon grew tired of it and came home, but 
getting home was rather slow work, on account 
of the crowds of people in the streets. We have 
had a very full day and I am rather fatigued. 

( 55 ) 
As it is now almost midnight, perhaps it would 
be well for me to bid you good-night. 
Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Budapest, Hungary, May 6, 1890. 

My dear Father : 

I received yours of April 14th with inclosure 
from Charlie, last Saturday, the day we left Con- 
stantinople, and thank you both very much for 
them. I wrote you on the 29th, after we had 
been two days in that great Turkish city, and the 
longer we stayed there the more fascinated we 
were with the customs and dress of the people, 
and the sights all about us, so entirely different 
from anything ever seen out of Constantinople. 
I cannot remember of writing about the even- 
ing service we attended at the oldest and finest 
mosque in the city on Tuesday, 29th, so will tell 
you now, even if it may be a repetition of what 
was in my last letter. We went with our drago- 
man about half past eight, and on arriving at St. 
Sophia's were directed to the gallery, because our 
heretic feet could not be permitted to stand on 
the same floor with the pious Turk. The church 
was perfectly lovely with its thousands of twin- 
kling lights, but even so many lamps did not 
make the place brilliant, for they were what is 
called floating wicks, and not by any means as 
bright as gas, nor even equal to candles. The 
Turks were standing in rows, each row near a 
space between the matting and the floor, this 

( S6 ) 
Space being left for their boots which are taken 
off on entering the church. The hats were worn 
all during service. After the chanting of the Ko- 
ran began, at certain times and at intervals all fell 
to their knees and bowed low, raised the body, 
bowed to the ground again, and then stood up. 
This ceremony was repeated thirty-two times. To 
me it was very funny and looked most ridiculous, 
but to the Turks I suppose it means a great deal. 
They all seemed very much in earnest, and yet, 
in five minutes after their devotions I suppose 
they would cheat or even kill a dog of a Chris- 
tian with great pleasure. Our dragoman was a 
Greek, and of course very much prejudiced against 
the Turks, and was always showing his strong 
feeling in that direction. We did not stay very 
long, as, having seen the performance once was 
to see it as it is always, and so went home. The 
city looked very beautiful with its 300 mosques 
and minarets all lighted, and then it was lovely 
moonlight besides. 

There are two bridges over the Golden Horn, 
uniting Stamboul, which is the old town, with 
Constantinople, the new one. Galata Bridge is 
the first one, nearest the Sea of Marmora and the 
Bosphorus, and Stamboul is the name of the 
other. Some time ago, when they were going to 
build a new bridge, on putting it together they 
found it was too short for the place for which it 
had been measured, so they selected another 
spot, put it there, and then had a new bridge 
built for the original spot. So now they have 

( 57 ) 
two bridges instead of one. The streets were so 
full of people that sometimes our carriage had to 
stop altogether. Crowds of men sat in the coffee- 
rooms or on the pavements smoking the favorite 
hookah, or pipe with a long tube attached to a 
large bottle of water. The smoke goes down into 
the water and thus modifies the strength of the 

Wednesday afternoon we went over to Scutari, 
in Asia, a large city on the point of the Sea of 
Marmora and the Bosphorus. We had made 
several attempts to see the American consul after 
arriving at Constantinople, but he was always out, 
and when we got on the boat to cross to Scutari 
he was there with his family and some friends. 
He introduced himself to us and presented his 
wife, and invited us to join their party, as we were 
all going to the same places. We had a charm- 
ing afternoon. The views from the high hill we 
climbed behind the town were vv^onderfully fine 
and extensive. We drove through the Turkish 
cemetery, where 100,000 of the victims of the 
Crimean war are buried, and walked through 
the English cemetery where the poor fellows 
lie who lost their lives in the same bloody war. 
The difference between the two places was very 
marked. The Turkish cemetery always is known 
by its cypress trees, which look very much like 
the tall poplars in height and shape, and the 
gravestones are very close together, without any 
regularity, and the place has a neglected and 
tumble-down look, while the English one has 

( 58 ) 
beautiful shade trees, a lovely carpet of grass, and 
plenty of flowers and shrubs. We saw the hos- 
pital where Florence Nightingale did such a noble 
work, and made her name famous and revered. 
On the way back we had a glorious sunset from 
the boat, which we all enjoyed much. They say 
it is unsafe for any one to wander about the hills 
beyond Scutari alone, for the bandits are very 
likely to carry you away for a ransom, or kill you 
for any money they can find on you. Only two 
days before we were there, a young man was car- 
ried oflT, and his friends could get no tidings of 
him. We saw no one who suggested the idea of 
a bandit, and as our party was large we had no 

Thursday morning we went by ferryboat up 
the Golden Horn to Agoub, which was the first 
place settled by the Turks after getting posses- 
sion of the country, and consequently very old. 
The mosque at Agoub is where the corona- 
tion of every Sultan takes place, and is such a 
sacred spot that none but Turks are ever ad- 
mitted into it. In the afternoon we drove around 
the old city wall, which was very large in cir- 
cumference and massive and substantial in its 
construction, as the ruins still show, and saw the 
gate through which the Turks gained an entrance, 
and so the victory, too. We walked and climbed 
a good deal that day in going to the tops of hills 
and towers for views of the city and its surround- 
ings. We saw the ceremony of the Sultan going 
to church on Friday. It is a weekly affair, and 

( 59) 
takes about five thousand troops, mounted and 
on foot, to get him there, he is so afraid of being 
assassinated as his predecessor Abdul-Aziz was, 
and spectators cannot get near enough to see his 
august countenance excepting with a strong glass. 
We saw the carriage and gorgeously arrayed 
coachman and footman, the splendid Arab horses 
and the red fez of the Sultan, but not the man 
himself, and so would not recognize him if we 
did see him. He will not have his picture taken 
for fear his face will become too well known. I 
think it would be more comfortable to occupy a 
less prominent position and feel more certain of 
the good intentions of mankind in general. 

In the afternoon we drove into the country to 
what they call the " Sweet waters of Europe," 
the point which supplies the city with good water. 
It was lovely out there, with beautiful green hills 
and enormous shade trees, and there is a palace 
with fine grounds where Abdul- Aziz resided with 
his harem, up to the time he was murdered, four- 
teen years ago. We went all through the palace 
and grounds, and enjoyed the charming spot very 
much. Saturday morning we spent in getting 
ready to leave Constantinople, and that afternoon 
we sailed up the Bosphorus and took in the beau- 
ties of its picturesque shores, with verdant hill- 
sides dotted with villas and palaces. It is eighteen 
miles long and very wide for a river, perhaps more 
than a mile wide, and about six o'clock we were 
on the Black Sea. Next morning we reached 
Varna, and then took train to Budapest, excepting 

( 6o) 
where we had to cross the Danube in a boat at 
Rustchuk. We were on the way here from Con- 
stantinople from Saturday at four p. m. till Mon- 
day at 2.30, and were a very tired party when we 
arrived. A good night's sleep has refreshed us, 
however, and we have been seeing this beautiful 
city to-day. It has 450,000 inhabitants, and is 
called a second Paris for its general beauty. It 
has fine wide streets, well paved (which is more 
than I can say about Constantinople), splendid 
public buildings, fine hotels (of which this one is 
the best and looks on the Danube), elegant resi- 
dences, charming gardens and parks, and, in fact, 
all that goes to make an attractive city. 

To-morrow we go to Vienna and will be there 
two weeks. I was sick when there before and 
saw nothing of the city. You will see our rooms 
marked on the picture of the hotel ; the other 
pictures give an idea of the river and of the old 
palace on the other side of the river. Now we are 
going down to dinner, as it is nearly seven o'clock. 
We leave at eight in the morning for Vienna. 

Alice and Kate join me in sending much love 
to you. 

Your affectionate daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Vienna, Austria, May 13, 1890. 

My dear Father : 

Yours of April 28th reached me at Vienna, 
May 1 2th. It is about the best time any of my 
home letters have made. I was very glad to learn 

(6i ) 
of your continued good health, and to hear all 
the news from your stirring little town. Eula's 
letter gave me much pleasure. She is getting to 
be a famous letter-writer. 

I parted from you last at Budapest, in Hun- 
gary, after giving you an account of our jour- 
ney from Constantinople, and of the weariness 
of mind and body which we experienced on the 
way. It would have been an easy journey in 
America, with our comfortable sleeping cars, but 
over here, without the requisite arrangements for 
comfort, night travel is fatiguing. 

On Wednesday, 7th, at 8.40 we were on the 
train again, bound for Vienna. It was a very 
pleasant trip of six hours, and through a pretty 
and fertile country. In Bulgaria, Roumania, and 
Hungary, we again saw women working in the 
fields for the first time since leaving Italy. Hav- 
ing made arrangements by letter before coming 
here, we found comfortable quarters at a pension, 
or boarding house, awaiting us, and there are 
some charming people in the house. I was much 
impressed by the appearance of the city. It is 
much more attractive than I had supposed, and 
according to its size is more magnificent than Paris. 
The public buildings are immense, massive, and 
grand, the streets are wide and well paved, and 
the churches are numerous and beautiful. Vienna 
has 1,500,000 inhabitants, or a little more than 
half the population of Paris. 

We have not done very much sight-seeing yet, 
having had more important — to us — business 

( 62) 
on hand, viz., getting some clothes to wear ; but 
we have made a commencement and will know 
quite a good deal about Vienna and its surround- 
ings before we leave it. Sunday morning we went 
to the Royal Chapel for the music, and were 
treated to a German sermon first. It sounded 
well, and was given with much earnestness, and 
even if I did not understand it, was quite im- 
pressive. Then we had an orchestra, and some 
splendid male voices, and that I could under- 
stand and appreciate very much. We took a 
drive in the park in the afternoon, and it seemed 
as if the whole city had been emptied into the 
streets, either walking or driving. It seemed to 
me as if I had never seen so many people in my 
life. The principal avenue in the park is three 
miles long and has a double row of splendid horse- 
chestnuts on each side of the road, and these were 
all in full bloom. It was a beautiful sight. Yes- 
terday we climbed 428 steps to the top of the 
tower of St. Stephen's church, and looked down 
on Vienna from that dizzy height, but the view 
did not compare with that from Galata Tower in 
Constantinople, where we had the Sea of Mar- 
mora, the Bosphorus, and the Golden Horn 
glistening in the sunshine, and beautiful green 
hills and sun-capped mountains in the distance. 
Last evening we went to the opera and enjoyed 
it very much, especially as we had seen nothing 
of that kind since leaving Paris. There was a 
thunderstorm with heavy rain produced in one 
scene, and it was so real that I felt chilly, as if 

(63 ) 
there had been a change in the weather. And 
now I will tell you something which will amuse 
you. All the windows here are double ; one set 
opens out and the other opens in, and there are 
green shades between the two. A few nights ago 
I felt chilly and so closed one of my windows, 
leaving the other open. In the night I woke and 
firmly believed myself taking cold from the other 
window near my bed, but fell asleep again while 
trying to make up my mind to get up and close 
it. On rising the next morning what was my sur- 
prise and amusement to find the outside windows 
tightly closed. So much for the power of imagi- 

To-day we have been to see the Crown jewels 
of Austria, which certainly are as magnificent as 
any I ever saw. Some of the diamonds are enor- 
mous and most beautifully mounted. There are 
many designs, from crowns to buttons, and it is 
a most brilliant display. There are many other 
costly and beautiful things there in gold and 
silver, but the jewels are the principal attraction, 
and it is almost impossible to get near the case 
for the crowds of people who constantly surround 
it on exhibition days. Afterwards we went to the 
crypt of the Capuchin church to see the royal 
vault where, among many relatives, Maria The- 
resa's splendid tomb is conspicuous. The air was 
so cold in the vault that we were glad to come 
out into the sunshine again, to get some warmth 
into our chilled veins. We shall be busy dur- 
ing the rest of our stay here, and expect to 

{ 64 ) 
leave on Saturday morning for Salzburg, to see 
the famous salt mines ; then we are going to 
Innsbruck, and from there to see some palaces 
built by Ludwig, the insane king of Bavaria. We 
must be in Oberammergau on the 24th for the 
Passion Play, which takes place on the 26th. 
After that a week in Munich, and a couple of 
weeks in Dresden will bring us to the time when 
we must start for Liverpool to meet William and 

It has been quite warm here for a few days, 
but has turned cool to-night. I shall see that my 
windows are properly closed this time. Alice and 
Kate send much love, with mine. Please remem- 
ber me very cordially to all friends. As ever, 
Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Innsbruck, Bavaria, May 20, 1890. 
My dear Father : 

I believe your letters have all reached me 
sooner or later, and the last one found me still 
in Vienna on the 1 6th, just as we were leaving 
for Salzburg, in Bavaria. It was a very pleasant 
journey of about seven hours, through a pictur- 
esque country, mountainous, and yet well culti- 
vated, wherever possible. Sometimes we were 
near the Danube for quite a long time, and when 
the river made a sudden bend we went straight 
on. After a while we left the river altogether and 
wound our way among the mountains by the side 
of mountain streams rushing madly along. 

( 6s ) 
Salzburg, as the picture shows you, is charm- 
ingly situated, and a beautiful river flows through 
it, while the castle stands high above the town 
and looks down on some lovely scenery. We 
made an excursion by carriage from there to see 
a salt mine, and it was our first experience of 
going into a mine of any kind, so of course we 
all enjoyed it very much. We were taken into 
a private room, on our arrival at the mine, and 
there we put on long white trousers, a black 
alpaca coat reaching to the knees and belted in 
at the waist, and a cloth cap. Then we each had 
a lantern and followed the guide in single file into 
the vaulted passage leading into the mine. The 
air seemed very chilly at first, but the exercise 
soon warmed us, and after walking along va- 
rious passages whose walls were almost pure 
salt, we chmbed 120 steps, and then began to 
go down again. In one place we had to slide 
down an inclined plane, and then we found how 
necessary it was not to be hampered by skirts. 
We saw the salt in several forms, and tasted each 
to be sure we were not being deceived, and were 
especially interested in some blocks of transparent 
salt, the color of amber. There was a lake near 
the lowest chamber, 120 feet long, no wide, and 
3 deep, and we went across it in a boat. There 
were small lamps placed at regular intervals all 
around it, and the effect in that dense darkness 
was weird and beautiful. After climbing to more 
than the level of the entrance we mounted a nar- 
row car, still in single file, and were carried swiftly 

( 66 ) 
along the passages until we were finally shot our 
into the bright sunlight, and our visit to the salt 
mine was over. We then got into our carriage 
again and drove some distance to Konig See, or 
King's Lake, a narrow but very long lake in the 
heart of the snow mountains, where the cliffs rise 
precipitously from the water to the height of 
several thousand feet. In one part of the lake 
there is a wonderful echo, and there the water is 
676 feet deep. The lake itself is 2000 feet above 
the level of the sea, and the snow mountains 
looking into it are over 8000 feet high. One of 
the peasant boatmen fired a pistol, and it rever- 
berated from side to side like the sound of heavy 
thunder. It was a most enchanting spot, and yet 
but one among the many wonderfully beautiful 
and interesting places in this grand country. 

Our journey from Salzburg to Innsbruck yes- 
terday was one of continuous delightful surprises 
on account of the beauty and grandeur of the 
scenery. We needed to have eyes in every direc- 
tion, to take in the many magnificent panoramas 
unfolding around us at every turn. There were 
splendid white mountains with their weight of 
perpetual snow, rising abruptly from 10,000 to 
12,000 feet high; there were noisy rapids and 
foamy waterfalls and dashing mountain streams • 
there were green grassy slopes dotted over with 
Swiss chalets which were held down by great 
stones on their roofs, and there were valleys 
covered with the most gorgeous wild flowers. In 
fact it seemed as if nature had omitted nothing in 

( 67) 
that one day's experience. Our eyes were tired 
out with looking at so much picturesque and 
grand scenery, and yet we could not bear to miss 
any of it. 

We reached Innsbruck last evening at seven, 
and have been doing some sight-seeing in the 
town this morning. We have seen the Court 
church and the royal palace, both of which are 
quite interesting, and now are about to take a 
drive to visit an old castle some distance from 
the town, and to see something of the country 
around Innsbruck. 

We are having perfect weather, but warmer 
than at any time since leaving Smyrna. I am 
looking on mountains covered with snow, and 
we are surrounded by mountains, although not 
perpetually snow-covered ones. In a few weeks 
most of them will probably look sombre enough. 

On Thursday we start by carriage for a visit to 
the famous Bavarian castles built by King Lud- 
wig, who was called the crazy king of Bavaria. 
They are said to be wonderfully beautiful and 
original. We expect to reach Oberammergau on 
Saturday evening, where we will remain till Tues- 
day, 27th, and will attend the first representa- 
tion of the Passion Play on Monday, 26th. It is 
played every ten years, and is considered to be a 
most wonderful thing. Crowds of foreigners of 
all nations come to see it, and having seen it are 
full of enthusiasm over it. Warm remembrances 
to all relatives and friends. 

Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

( 68 ) 

Hotel Bavaria, Munich, 
May 28, 1890. 

My dear Father : 

I was much pleased to find your letters of May 
5th and 1 2th awaiting me on our arrival here, yes- 
terday. It is a great satisfaction to me to learn of 
your continued good health. Am sorry Charlie 
was not well, but hope he is all right by this time. 
The past week has been so full of new and de- 
lightful experiences that it seems much longer, 
and yet when I wrote you on the 20th we were 
still at Innsbruck, and it will not be a week till 
to-morrow morning since we left there. 

We went by carriage from Innsbruck to Ober- 
ammergau, and were three days on the road, stop- 
ping for meals at the small towns on the way, 
and spending the nights in little country inns, 
very primitive in their furnishings but exceed- 
ingly comfortable. The first day of our drive we 
enjoyed most magnificent scenery, — snow-clad 
mountains, deep gorges, lovely valleys, marvel- 
ously beautiful green lakes, grand old ruins of 
princely castles, and above all a glorious sky, 
with plenty of sweet June fresh air. 

In passing Fernpass, one of the most varied 
and picturesque spots I have yet seen, we were 
over 4000 feet above the level of the sea. The 
second day we started at seven o'clock and thor- 
oughly enjoyed the dewy freshness of the morn- 
ing, as well as the delightful surroundings. Sharp 
snow peaks stood up in bold relief against the 
blue sky, while the valley was gorgeous with wild 

flowers of deep yellow, brilliant with the dew- 
drops, and hundreds of cream- colored gentle- 
eyed cows were feeding on the sweet clover on 
the hillsides. That day we visited two splen- 
did palaces belonging to King Ludwig II. One 
of the palaces was built by Maximilian II., Lud- 
wig's father, and has a fine position on a high 
point overlooking two beautiful lakes. The in- 
terior is furnished and ornamented after the 
fashion of one hundred years ago, and while 
handsome, does not compare favorably with the 
other one, built under the direction of Ludwig 
himself. The situation of the latter is far finer, 
the architecture is on a much grander scale, and 
the interior is magnificent, with marble pillars 
and fine carving, splendid furniture and beautiful 
paintings. The whole thing is in the most per- 
fect taste, but the building is not yet completed. 
They are trying to finish it according to King 
Ludwig's plans, but will probably be a long time 
doing it. The outlook from all the windows gives 
one grand glimpses of the grandeur of nature, and 
while we were in the building we got a superb 
effect of nature and art combined. 

The great tower of the castle stood up in a 
lofty manner, bathed in sunshine, while behind 
it great black clouds rolled in dense masses 
towards the north. We were thankful to be 
under such perfect shelter, when the storm broke, 
a few minutes later, and the rain fell in torrents. 
An hour later we drove through the valley to- 
wards the town where we were to sleep, with the 

( 70) 
afternoon sun shining as brightly as ever, and all 
nature smiling, after the sudden storm. 

Saturday, our third and last day in the Aus- 
trian Tyrol, we again started at seven o'clock, 
and began by climbing part way up the moun- 
tain, and looking backward had lovely views 
on every hand. Then we reached a lake, very 
long, narrow, and deep, which lies between the 
two mountain ranges at the height of 3146 
feet above the sea. The water was like a mirror, 
it was so smooth, and the mountains opposite 
were reflected so clearly in the lake that it was 
hard to tell where the mountains began and the 
lake ended. Even the light clouds in the sky 
were clearly reflected in the water. The carriage 
road led along the bank on one side of the lake 
only, and the shore shelved up so suddenly that 
we seemed to be looking off a precipice, for the 
water was very clear. Before noon we reached 
the third of King Ludwig's palaces, and it was a 
marvel of beauty in delicate carving, heavy em- 
broidery in silver and gold, and a profusion of 
beautiful things. The grounds had fountains, 
cascades, arbors, flowers, forest trees, and a weird 
grotto with strange effects from lights of diflfer- 
ent colors sent into it from outside. We were 
charmed with all we saw, and after spending a few 
hours very pleasantly at Linderhof, and having 
some lunch, we continued our course towards 
Oberammergau, which we reached early in the 
afternoon. We had enjoyed our three days among 
the mountains so much that we were actually 

(71 ) 
sorry to find the journey ended, but as soon as 
we had found our lodgings and become settled, 
we began to be interested in the village and the 
people, and to look forward to Monday as the 
climax of our anticipations of months. Fancy a 
small town containing only 190 houses, having 
more than 5000 people come down upon it sud- 
denly, and you can have some idea of what Ober- 
ammergau was on Sunday and Monday last. 

The Passion Play is a religious performance to 
the people of Bavaria, and if the outside world 
will invade them at the time the play takes place, 
all they can do is to try to take care of the 
strangers as well as they can. Many people have 
the feeling that to portray the life and death of 
Christ as they do in the Passion Play is sacrile- 
gious, but after having seen it, all such idea passes 
away. The whole performance is more solemn 
and impressive than any religious service I ever 
saw, and it must be something wonderful that 
would keep five thousand people chained to their 
seats, one might say, for eight hours and more, 
without one symptom of fatigue or impatience. 
It was simply the most wonderful and the most 
impressive thing anyone could imagine, and I 
feel that one is better and not worse for having 
seen it. I cannot attempt to describe the per- 
formance, on paper at least, but will try to give 
you some idea of it when we meet. 

Yesterday morning we came to Munich, and 
expect to remain here a week before going on to 
Prague and Dresden. I have to-day written my 

( 72 ) 
last letter to Will N., as William and he sail in 
four weeks for Liverpool, where we expect to be 
at that time to meet them on their arriv^al. I 
send you a species of clover which I have found 
in Austria and Bavaria. It is such a delicate shade 
of yellow that the fields covered with it are very 
pretty. It is quite different from the Sicilian 
clover, in size and shape, but must belong to the 
clover family, as its general characteristics are the 

To-day we have been to see the carriages of 
King Ludwig, and I assure you they were gorgeous 
enough, in gold and blue, and beautiful embroid- 
ered cushions and robes. While here we are going 
to make an excursion into the country to see the 
fourth and last of this luxurious king's palaces. 
Perhaps it is as well he died before he quite 
ruined the country with his extravagance. 

It is growing late and I am feeling the effect 
of so much travehng and sight-seeing, so, with 
much love to you and to the household, I bid 
you good-night. 

Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Dresden, June lo, 1890. 
My dear Father : 

It gave me great pleasure to receive your good 
letter to-day, and to be assured that my letters 
to you are so satisfactory. Sometimes it was not 
easy to write, either from fatigue or from lack of 
time, but I always remembered that you would 

( 73 ) 

be expecting to hear from me at the regular time, 
and that I must not disappoint you. Your sweet 
words of commendation have more than repaid 
me for any trouble I have taken, for you know I 
always enjoy praise judiciously bestowed. 

My last letter was from Munich on the 3d, 
only two days before we left that clean, pretty 
old town. The day before we came away was the 
fete of Corpus Christi, a great day in the Catholic 
Church, and they had a grand procession which 
was almost four hours in passing our hotel. We 
were fortunate in having front rooms, and so did 
not have to go into the street at all, although we 
did have to rise an hour earlier than usual be- 
cause the procession started soon after six o'clock ; 
and when we heard the clash of drums and heard 
the martial tread of the soldiers, the King's Guard, 
how could we resist running to the windows, or 
help being enthusiastic with the crowd ? It was 
certainly the finest parade I ever saw, papal or 
otherwise, and was well worth seeing. Some of 
the gorgeous court carriages, in blue and silver 
with white satin cushions and grandly dressed 
outriders, passed our windows, but we couldn't 
see who was in them. 

Friday morning we started for Dresden and 
rather dreaded the thirteen-hour trip, but the day 
was so cool and pleasant, and we had such agree- 
able company the time passed swiftly away, and by 
8.30 we were comfortably settled at Hotel Belle- 
vue. It is the same hotel where we spent a week 
just seven years ago this month, and is quite 

homelike to me. We found our trunks from 
Rome had arrived safely, and the Italians had 
not broken them open or robbed us of our valu- 
ables, as we were led to expect. We felt quite 
royal when our three trunks came home, after hav- 
ing lived in a shawl strap for nearly three months, 
but are becoming accustomed to the new state of 
things already. The weather has been cold and 
November-like ever since we came, and there has 
been a good deal of rain. Yesterday was lovely, 
and to-day has been pleasant since noon. 

Last night we went to the opera and enjoyed 
the music very much. To-day we have been to 
the picture gallery ; if not the finest gallery in the 
world, there are certainly few to compare with it. 
Raphael's most famous Madonna is here, and it 
is a marvelous picture. It makes one feel better 
to look at it, as if the painted canvas carried 
a blessing in it for all. 

I had a letter from William to-day; he is 
already away from St. Louis, and one week from 
to-night he and Will will be on the ship ready 
to sail in the early morning. We are expecting 
Hattie Sawyer here on Thursday to spend a week 
with us, and are saving up our little trips and 
excursions till she comes. In two weeks from 
now we will be in Liverpool, awaiting the arrival 
of the steamer City of New York. Never has 
she borne such precious cargo as will then stand 
on her deck, and if prayers and blessings will 
insure her safe crossing, then they will have a 
delightful voyage. 

(75 ) 
Hoping that you and yours are in good health 
and happy, as ever. 

Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Bettws-y-Coed, North Wales, 
July 2, 1890. 
My dear Father : 

I wrote you on the 24th from Liverpool and 
added a postscript after the arrival of the boys. 
On the 26th I heard from you, and this morning 
have had your letter telling about the wedding 
and Charlie's departure for Glasgow. We will 
try to see him if we go to Scotland. 

On the 26th we took the train over to Ches- 
ter, only an hour from Liverpool, and found a 
quaint old town with very interesting things to 
see. We saw the house where the Earl of Derby 
used to live, and the attic where he concealed 
himself sixteen weeks, when they were searching 
for him because he had spoken against the gov- 
ernment, — also the old Mill on the Dee, which 
is the foundation of the song called " The Miller 
of the Dee.*' Will and I climbed Phoenix Tower, 
from which Charles L witnessed the defeat of 
his army, and we all attended service in the fine 
old cathedral, built in 1 500 and something. Will 
and I also walked around the old wall of the ancient 
town, about one and three quarters miles around, 
with old towers and outlooks at intervals. Fri- 
day we drove out to Eaton Hall, the country-seat 
of the Duke of Westminster. He owns about 

( 76 ) 
half of the county of Cheshire, and has a magni- 
ficent park of splendid old forest trees, full of 
game of various kinds. We saw plenty of deer, 
rabbits, pheasants, etc., and his stables are noted 
for a fine breed of racers. The gardens and green- 
houses are very extensive and beautiful. Apple 
and pear trees were trained along the stone walls 
and were made into hedges. The Hall itself is 
very large, finely proportioned, massive, and hand- 
some, and the interior is filled with a choice col- 
lection of odd and beautiful things. Will took 
several pictures of the house and grounds, as well 
as of the home of William E. Gladstone, which 
we next visited, and of which I inclose you a 
photograph. Gladstone's land joins that of the 
Duke of Westminster, and the park has 250 
acres, while he owns about 5000 acres. His place 
is in Flint, just over the border of Wales,, and is 
called Hawarden (Harden). One never knows 
how to pronounce the English proper names, and 
when it comes to Welsh names, it is just as well 
to give up at once. We could not go through 
Gladstone's house, but the exterior is charming, 
and it is finely situated on a high point, with a 
splendid outlook all over the grounds. The park 
is very rolling and picturesque, with old trees and 
great green slopes of lawn and meadow. We saw 
the trunk of the last tree the great statesman cut 
down, and the work was that of a man who un- 
derstood his business. Saturday we came over to 
Bettws-y-Coed (called Betsy-coo-ed), where we 
mean to remain until next Monday. We are 

quite surrounded by the loveliest Welsh hills, 
with the river Conway at our feet, and this same 
river is well stocked with trout and salmon. Will 
and Mr. McCool, an American gentleman who 
is traveling with us for a few weeks, have gone 
out fishing this morning, and 1 expect they will 
return with a full basket. Yesterday we had a 
great treat. We started on top of the coach at 
9.15 in the morning and got back at 6.45 in the 
evening. We enjoyed a constant succession of 
beautiful sights, — waterfalls, gorges, mountains, 
castles, etc., with occasionally a smart sprinkle of 
rain, which only added to the interest ; and in the 
afternoon drove through the slate quarry district, 
where everything visible was connected with 
the work of getting out the slate. There were 
huge mountains of refuse slate, which must have 
been a great many years in attaining their present 
proportions. It reminded me of the lava fields 
about Vesuvius and Etna, the slate being almost 
the same color as the lava. There were eighteen 
persons on the coach, including the driver and 
bugler, and as it was the first run of the coach 
for this season the inhabitants turned out-of-doors 
to see us pass by as soon as they heard the 
first note of the bugle. At one place where we 
stopped for a few moments about two hundred 
children surrounded the coach. Will was anxious 
to get a picture of coach and children, but the 
sun refused to shine, and it could not be done. 

We are not quite settled in our minds whether 
we go to Norway and the North Cape, or to 

( 78 ) 
Norway and Russia. So I cannot give you any- 
thing very definite in this letter as to our route 
after we leave here on the 7th. Our party are 
all well and in fine spirits, and all unite in send- 
ing much love to you. It is very good of you 
to write me so regularly, and I appreciate it 

Ever your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Adelphi Hotel, Liverpool, 
July 8, 1890. 

My dear Father : 

I wrote you on the 2d, and had a letter from 
you the same day. On the 4th July we took 
another long drive, but not on a coach, to see 
Carnarvon Castle. It is the largest castle in North 
Wales and, although a ruin, is a magnificent one. 
Edward I. built this castle in 1284, and Edward 
II. was born there. We saw the room, and it 
must have been a most uncomfortable one. Will 
and I climbed the tower, where steps still remain, 
and had a fine view of the sea and the country 
about the castle. He took his camera on the trip 
and got some pictures which I hope will turn out 
well. The walls of Carnarvon Castle are fifteen 
feet thick in many places, and surround several 
acres of ground. 

Friday morning Will and I walked nearly nine 
miles before lunch, and in the afternoon we all 
went on a coach ride of eleven miles and came 
back by train. The country is beautiful, with 

SO many picturesque spots, that one wants to live 
out-of-doors. Then the air is so fresh and bracing 
it gives a person new vigor and an enormous ap- 
petite. The table at Waterloo Hotel, Bettws-y- 
Coed, was very fine, one of the best we have found 
anywhere. Saturday afternoon we went by train 
over to the seashore, Llandudno. It took only 
an hour, but a more complete change of scene it 
would be hard to imagine, from the lovely wooded 
hills and green fields of the Conway valley, to 
the open sea, with no shade, and nothing green. 
The beach at Llandudno is a splendid one, 
over two miles long, with such a gentle slope 
down to the water that when the tide was out 
the beach was nearly a quarter of a mile wide. 
And there the children were playing in the sand 
or riding the little donkeys and having a good 
time generally. We drove over to see the ruins 
of Conway Castle, which was also built by Ed- 
ward L in about 1284. It is a very handsome 
ruin, all covered with ivy, but is not so large as 
Carnarvon. It was so cool at the seaside that we 
required fire in our sitting-room all the time, and 
needed as many blankets at night as in winter. 
It is cold still here to-day, and in fact we have 
had such cool weather all summer it is hard to 
realize that in America people are dying from 
the heat. We would really enjoy a little warmer 
weather, but do not expect to have any until our 
return from Norway. We left Llandudno yester- 
day morning and came to Liverpool as the best 
point from which to start for Hull. Here at the 

( 8o ) 

Adelphi Hotel they are famous for their turtle 
soup. They get the turtles from the West In- 
dies, over one hundred at a time, and many of 
the huge creatures weigh over three hundred 
pounds. We went downstairs and saw them in 
the tanks where they are kept. There were 
about fifty in the water, and it was quite a sight, 
as some of them were three feet long, without 
the head being visible. It poured all yesterday 
afternoon and night, but seems to be clearing 
up this morning. We start for Hull this after- 
noon at 3.05, and expect to reach there at seven 
o'clock, and our steamer sails for Bergen at ten 
p. M. I dare say we will feel rather forlorn to- 
morrow, but it will not be a long trip, so we will 
be able to stand it. We hope to arrive at Bergen 
at latest on Thursday morning, and on Friday 
will take another steamer for the North Cape. 
Mr. McCool, the gentleman who went to Wales 
with us, has been in London for a day or two, 
but we will find him waiting for us at Hull, to 
accompany us through Norway. 

Now I must close and finish my packing. 
All wish to send much love to you, in which I 
join cordially. 

Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

EiDE, Norway, July 15, 1890. 

My dear Father : 

My last letter to you was from Liverpool on 
the 8th, just as we were about to start for Nor- 

( 8i ) 
way. We went to Hull by train, and there em- 
barked on the steamer Eldorado for Bergen. The 
moment we left the harbor our troubles began, 
for the North Sea is usually very rough, and that 
trip was no exception to the rule. On the con- 
trary, it was worse than usual, and we were all so 
sick that our enthusiasm about the North Cape 
vanished, and on our arrival at Bergen on Thurs- 
day afternoon, we gave up our staterooms on the 
Cape steamer and concluded to see Norway by 
land. However, before the time came for the 
boat to leave Bergen, Mr. McCool and Will had 
decided they still wanted to see the midnight sun, 
and they left us on Friday evening. I am very 
sorry to disappoint you about descriptions of that 
far north region, but under the circumstances it 
could not be helped. 

We found Bergen a rather picturesque old 
town of 50,000 inhabitants, situated on several 
fjords (fee-ords) and seeming almost like several 
islands, well built up. The German fleet was at 
anchor there, but the Emperor and his escort ship 
had just left the day before. The Emperor is 
doing Norway, and keeps just a few days ahead 
of us. William says it is just as well, as it would 
unsettle the minds of the Norwegians to have so 
much royalty in the same town. We are pretty 
well north, even here, as it is light all night. The 
twilight lasts till about one o'clock and then day 
begins. At any time in the night I can see to 
read ordinary print, and in Bergen people were 
about the streets all night long. 

{ 82 ) 

Norway is made up of mountains and water, 
which gives beautiful scenery but poor farms. Of 
course fishing is one of the principal occupations 
of the people, and the salmon abounding in the 
fjords are large and delicious. We have simple 
food, but everything is well cooked, and the air 
is so bracing that no one can complain of lack 
of appetite. Salmon for breakfast, dinner, and 
supper, and after a week of it we are still fond of 
it. Saturday afternoon we came over by train to 
Vossevangen, to spend Sunday. The scenery on 
the way was charming, as we ran a long way by 
the side of a beautiful fjord, with fine mountain 
ranges on every hand. The day was beautiful, 
and the coloring in mountain and sky was won- 
derful. Sunday morning we went to the Norwe- 
gian Lutheran church, and heard a very earnest 
sermon, which was interesting, even if we could 
not understand a word of it. The peasants were 
there in great numbers and were very devout as 
well as picturesque. Their costumes were, on the 
whole, rather simple, and as a rule not becoming, 
but the red waists over the white blouses were 
quite pretty. 

In front of the hotel at which we stayed was a 
lovely little lake, and just beyond were moun- 
tains covered with snow, which were quite daz- 
zling in the sunlight. Yesterday morning we 
drove for three hours over such a beautiful pass 
to this place, called Eide (Ida), and on the way 
saw a splendid waterfall, next to the finest one in 
Norway. It is about five hundred feet high and 

( 83 ) 
has an immense volume of water. From here we 
took boat up the Hardanger-fjord, which is very 
large and has many branches. The whole way 
was one succession of grand sights. One splen- 
did mountain range has a glacier which extends for 
fifty miles, and from the boat we could plainly 
see the huge ice fields and great masses of snow, 
and at several points the snow reached almost to 
the water's edge. The cliffs and ravines are full of 
foamy waterfalls of greater or less dimensions, and 
we were quite astonished to see trees and other 
verdure almost up to the glaciers. Sometimes it 
seemed as if a large patch of snow had been 
placed in the midst of a green field. Often we saw 
a patch of cultivated ground seemingly in an al- 
most inaccessible spot on the mountain-side, with 
a house and other buildings, showing it was the 
home and consequently the castle of some worthy 
peasant. To-day the boat stopped an hour at a 
little village, to enable the passengers to take a 
drive along a wonderful road by the cliff, on the 
very edge of the lake. The funny two-wheeled 
vehicles they use so much here hold two people 
besides the driver, who sits perched up on a little 
seat at the back, and the mountain ponies need 
no urging to go. We had quite an exciting drive, 
and enjoyed the magnificent surroundings, the 
novel mode of travel, and the change from the 
boat. The sun came out brightly, for the occa- 
sion, too, and so nothing was lacking for our en- 
joyment. The weather in Norway this summer 
has been very wet and cold. We need all our 

( 84) 
warm clothing as well as waterproofs and umbrel- 
las, but as some of the finest effects are from the 
clouds and shadows, we do not mind some damp- 
ness occasionally. It does not rain all the time, 
but it makes us duly appreciate the sunshine 
when it comes. We mean to drive, mostly, for 
the next week, until we reach Christiania on the 
22d, and about that time we expect to meet Will 
and our friend, at the same place, as they will 
take train across the country to join us after hav- 
ing seen the North Cape. On reaching Chris- 
tiania I hope to find a letter from you, and to 
learn that you still continue in good health. We 
have had very fine strawberries in Norway, as well 
as in England. I have had some as large as a large 
wineglass, which were very sweet and delicious. 

Warm regards to all my friends in Aylmer, 
with much love to you. Your devoted daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

William as well as Mrs. Fisher and Kate send 
a great deal of love to you. 

Christiania, Norway, July 23, 1890. 
My dear Father : 

Yours of July ist came yesterday, and we were 
indeed much interested to know that you were 
well up to that time. The bracing air of Norway 
and the out-of-door life we are leading is doing 
us all a great deal of good. We were delighted 
with our trip across the country, which was a per- 
fect success in every way. Even the weather 
smiled on us, and for five days we had a clear 


sky, bright sunshine, and plenty of pure moun- 
tain air. I wrote you last from Eide at the 
head of the Hardanger-fjord. From there we 
drove back to Vossevangen (where we spent Sun- 
day 13 th), and the same afternoon drove to Stal- 
heim, a point overlooking a wonderful ravine with 
two splendid waterfalls to be seen as one goes 
down the mountain. We spent the night at Stal- 
heim, and next day walked down the zigzag car- 
riage road, which makes sixteen turns on the way 
down, into the valley below, and then, getting into 
our carriage, drove to Gudvangen(Good-vang-en), 
and there we took boat on the Sohne-fjord, and 
for six hours were between towering mountain 
ranges from 4000 to 5000 feet high, with snow 
peaks visible in the distance nearly all the time. 
We saw a waterfall that day falling in foaming 
cascades 3000 feet. This fjord is said to be 4000 
feet deep, and some of them are supposed to be 
as deep as the mountains are high. A fjord is an 
inlet from the sea, and is found only in Norway. 
The weather had been very cold ever since our 
arrival in Norway, till about this time, when the 
air began to grow softer, and as we came east- 
ward we found it much warmer. Still, it has not 
been hot any of the time, and no one could de- 
sire a more perfect temperature than we are now 
enjoying. Thursday night we spent at Laerdal- 
soren (Lare-dol-suren), a village on a branch of 
the Sohne-fjord. It was such a quaint little place, 
with very small hewn-log houses, with the fun- 
niest little windows and turf roofs, on which 

( 86 ) 
masses of bright yellow moss and gay-colored 
wild flowers grew and bloomed luxuriantly. From 
there we began our drive of three days over the 
country, changing horses every ten miles, dining 
at one posting station and sleeping at another, 
walking up hills and down hills when they were 
very steep, and enjoying the magnificent moun- 
tain scenery from hilltop and valley until we 
reached Christiania on Monday evening, 2ist. 

The driving in Norway would suit you exactly, 
because the horses walk up hill and run down, 
and they are so surefooted that one need ha\^e 
no fear of accidents, unless from the carelessness 
of some one who may be driving. Small boys are 
often the drivers, but they can be trusted even 
when the traveler cannot. Mr. Bennett, who 
controls most of the posting tours through Nor- 
way, and is a friend of Mrs. Fisher and lives in 
Christiania, yesterday took us to drive and to 
take tea at his home, and the whole family were 
very cordial in their reception of us. Christiania 
is quite a pretty town of 150,000 inhabitants, and 
has many beautiful spots about it. Still, we en- 
joyed much more the novelty of driving through 
the country than being in a city. We leave this 
p. M. for Stockholm, Sweden, and there we expect 
to welcome Mr. McCool and Will, who will arrive 
there from the North Cape about the same time 
we will reach there from Christiania. We hear 
that the two travelers had a very successful view 
of the midnight sun, and we are now anxious to 
see them and hear all about their trip. 

( 87) 
We are now going to lunch, and after that to 
the train, so I cannot write you a very long letter 
this time. I have only written one letter since 
sending my last to you. We have had our time 
too fully occupied for letter-writing to find a 
place in our days. Our love to all friends, and 
to yourself in particular. 

Your devoted daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Hotel de France, July 29, '90. 
St. Petersburg, Russia. 

My dear Father : 

My last letter to you was on the 23 d, from 
Christiania. We had a very pleasant time there 
and received much attention from the Bennett 
family. They all were down to the train to see 
us off on Wednesday afternoon, and presented 
each one of us ladies with a handsome bouquet 
of hothouse flowers. Our journey to Stockholm 
by train was not very comfortable. What they 
call sleeping cars over here are generally only 
places where one can lie down, but neither bed- 
clothes nor pillows are provided, so you can 
imagine how tiresome a night journey is in this 
country. And yet they talk a good deal about 
their comfortable sleeping cars. 

We reached Stockholm about nine o'clock on 
Thursday morning, :24th, and found a beautiful 
city, built on the mainland and numerous islands, 
with a great deal of beauty in its surroundings as 
well as in its handsome streets, magnificent build- 

( 88 ) 
ings, and lovely parks. It has a population of 
227,000, and there is a great deal to interest a 
stranger in the city. It is also called the Venice 
of the North, on account of there being so much 
water about it. We were there two days, but did 
no regular sight-seeing, outside of taking a drive 
each day and going to the top of the high ele- 
vator for a view of the city. 

Thursday evening Mr. McCool and Will ar- 
rived from their trip to the North Cape, and 
they had such a fine time that I was very sorry 
to have missed it. They saw the midnight sun, 
most successfully, three times. It must have 
seemed very odd, if one could realize it, to have 
the sun shining as brightly at midnight as at 
noon. The only difference was in the location of 
the sun. Will intends giving you a description of 
it, and you will enjoy it more in his own words. 

On Friday evening we left Stockholm by 
steamer for St. Petersburg. This time the sea 
was kind to us, and the whole trip was most 
enjoyable. On saiHng out from Stockholm we 
had a splendid view of the city and a glorious sun- 
set as well. The Baltic is full of islands along the 
route to St. Petersburg, so we were in sheltered 
water most of the way, and the Gulf of Finland 
has a good many islands too. Saturday evening 
at six o'clock we reached Helsingfors, in Fin- 
land, and spent three hours there. It is a hand- 
some town of 70,000, and has a very strong for- 
tress. As Finland belongs to Russia, it was our 
first landing on Russian ground. We drove all 

( 89 ) 
over the city in a funny little vehicle which they 
call the drosky, and anything more ridiculous 
than the whole turnout it would be hard to 
find. The driver sits in front, on his high seat, 
wearing a short-waisted coat with a long skirt 
which gives him a very clumsy figure, while his 
low-crowned and broad chimney-pot hat defies 
description. The low seat behind carries two very 
uncomfortably, and the horse has a large wooden 
hoop over his head which is used to support the 
shafts. They use the same vehicle here, but have 
other carriages as well. We often ride in a drosky, 
though, for the amusement of it. Sunday morn- 
ing at ten we passed Cronstadt and were much 
interested in seeing its wonderful fortifications, 
and at 12.30 sailed into the harbor of St. Peters- 
burg through the canal of several miles' length, 
which was built a few years ago, to enable large 
ships to come into the city without unloading. 

We have already been out to Peterhof to see 
the royal palace where Alexander II. lived, and 
were shown through the various rooms, which 
were beautiful with gilt and white decorations and 
magnificent pictures. The grounds are very ex- 
tensive and there are a great many fountains in 
different designs, which played during the even- 
ing. Crowds of people were there on foot and in 
carriages, amusing themselves and listening to the 
two bands, one of them performing all the time. 
We saw the brother and uncle of the Czar, but 
the Emperor and Empress are not in the city at 
present, so we have to be content with seeing 

( 90 ) 
some of their palaces. Just now great prepara- 
tions are being made to celebrate the birthday of 
the Empress, which occurs next Sunday. Accord- 
ing to Russian count this is the 17th day of July, 
instead of the 29th, as their date is twelve days 
later than ours. 

We left Peterhof at ten p. m. and reached home 
before midnight. It would have been light even 
without the aid of the moon, and we found it 
hard to realize that it was so late. We realized it 
more yesterday morning when it was time to rise. 
We have engaged a guide to show us the sights, 
as here, where almost nothing but Russian is 
spoken outside of the hotels and shops, we feel 
perfectly helpless without one. 

Yesterday morning we visited the Hermitage, 
or picture gallery, which was built by Catherine 
II., and is a magnificent building filled with gems 
of art and has many relics of Peter the Great and 
of Catherine II. The jewels are superb, but it 
seems a pity that so much wealth should lie idle, 
when there is so much suffering and poverty in 
the country. In the afternoon we went to one of 
the churches to hear the music, and drove in the 

St. Petersburg was founded by Peter the Great 
in 1703, and now has 1,000,000 population. It is 
an enormous city, well built, well paved, with much 
of interest to be seen. We shall, however, only 
do a little in the way of seeing it, as three days 
will scarcely make much impression when there 
is so much to be seen. To-day we will visit some 

(91 ) 

churches, the burial place of Peter the Great, etc., 
and end the day with another drive. We have 
charming weather and warmer than we have yet 
experienced, but not hot by any means. To- 
morrow night we leave for Moscow and return 
to St. Petersburg about the end of the week, on 
our way to Paris. They are waiting now to go 
out to St. Isaac^s, the largest and finest church 
here, so I must close. Love to one and all from 

Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 
Noon, July 29th. Have just received yours 
of July yth, and was delighted to hear that all was 
well with you up to that date. 

Moscow, Russia, August 4, 1890. 
My dear Father : 

I had a nice letter from you on July 29th, the 
same day on which I wrote you. We were still 
in St. Petersburg at that time, and while we were 
there I climbed to the top of the dome on the 
cathedral of St. Isaac's and saw St. Petersburg 
fivQ hundred feet below me, spread out like a 
great picture. None of our party would go with 
me but our guide, and they lost a good deal by 
missing that splendid panorama of the city. I 
would not have missed it for a great deal. 

We started for Moscow on Wednesday night, 
and reached this fascinating old city on Thursday 
morning. We actually had a real sleeping car, 
and passed a very comfortable night. Moscow 

( 92 ) 
covers a good deal of ground, has a population 
of 880,000, and is, next to Constantinople, the 
most picturesque place I ever have seen. There 
are over four hundred churches, and each church 
has from one to seven domes, while no two 
domes on any church are alike. Many of these 
domes are gilded, and glitter in the sunshine like 
burnished gold. We reached here about ten 
o*clock in the morning, and that day visited the 
palace (which was full of beautiful and interesting 
relics of royalty from the time of Peter the Great) 
and five churches, and drove about twenty 
miles to get the view of Moscow from Sparrow 
Hills, — the same which Napoleon had in 18 12. 
After seeing the view we did not wonder that the 
great general wanted to capture the city. Friday 
we did a good deal of sight-seeing ; went to the 
church where the Czars are baptized and married, 
to another church where they are crowned, and 
to still another where they are buried. Then to 
an odd old church which Napoleon attempted to 
destroy by fire, but did not succeed on account 
of its fireproof character, probably, although the 
people declared it was a miraculous intervention 
from heaven which saved it. At any rate, finding 
it would not kindle properly, he used it for a 
stable instead, and the quaint edifice, with its 
eleven towers all of different sizes and colors, 
still remains a prominent landmark in the city. 
The favorite pavement here is cobble-stones, and 
we have not lacked for exercise since coming here, 
as the distances are so great that we are obliged 

( 92 ) 
to drive a good deal. Then the noise is terrible, 
but one can get accustomed to almost anything, 
and we do not mind the roughness nor the noise 
nearly so much as at first. 

Friday night we went over to the fair at Nijni 
Novgorod, about two hundred miles further east. 
We had a car called a sleeper, but the company 
do not supply bedding, so we took our own pil- 
lows and blankets and were very comfortable. 
We spent all day Saturday doing the fair and the 
town, which is quite an important one of 60,000 
inhabitants at the junction of the Volga and Oka 
rivers, and came back in the same car Satur- 
day night. We were quite willing to keep pretty 
quiet yesterday, but in the evening we started to 
drive out to Petroski Park, where the illumina- 
tions and fireworks were to take place in honor 
of the Empress, whose birthday it was. It was 
cloudy when we started, but grew blacker and 
blacker, and the thunder grew louder and nearer 
while the lightning flashed constantly. Finally 
we decided to turn back, and just as we had 
started on our return trip the storm broke. 
Such a wild drive I never had. Our coachman 
drove furiously, and as every other driver was 
doing the same, we expected every instant to 
assist in a collision. How we managed to get 
through the mass of vehicles unharmed I cannot 
imagine ; but we did, and were so well protected 
in the carriage that we were not damp at all. The 
wind blew down the arches and illuminations in 
the park and severely injured a number of people. 

SO I am glad we did not go any further. This 
morning was lovely after the storm, and not so 
warm as it was yesterday. Still, we have had no 
warm weather anywhere this summer, and per- 
haps we feel the heat now more than those who 
have become accustomed to it. To-day we have 
been to the Treasury, and have seen the corona- 
tion robes of many of the Czars, as well as their 
thrones as far back as Peter the Great. Diamond 
studded crowns and jeweled swords, gold and 
silver plate of immense value, old armor and 
coats of mail, old state carriages, etc., were shown 
us, which were all most interesting, but the car 
on runners, which was Empress Elizabeth's car- 
riage for traveling between St. Petersburg and 
Moscow, was the most curious. It must have 
had a good many powerful horses to carry it 
along, and many armed men to guard it on the 
way. Both here and at St. Petersburg are seen 
the most superb black horses. We have even had 
the pleasure of driving behind some splendid ones 
ourselves, and have bowled along at a dizzy pace ; 
and here the crowning beauty of the horse, the 
mane and tail, are not taken away from him. We 
call it a barbarous custom to deprive an animal 
of its tail, and yet I do not believe barbarians 
ever did such a cruel and ridiculous thing. 

The country about here has no special charac- 
teristics, and as we were on the train it seemed to 
me as if I might be in Canada instead of in Russia, 
as far as the general appearance of the country was 


concerned. They grow a good deal of wheat, 
and the forests are mostly pine, as far as 1 have 
noticed. The countrymen look very picturesque 
as they are seen working in the fields, wearing, 
generally, bright red shirts ; but distance lends 
enchantment, as on close inspection they are not 
at all attractive looking. This afternoon Will and 
I climbed to the top of Ivan's tower, which is 
about the centre of the city. Moscow looked 
beautiful from there, with its thousands of domes, 
and the Moscow River twisting about and spanned 
here and there by fine picturesque bridges. We 
counted thirty-four bells of various sizes in the 
tower, the largest of which weighs 19,200 pounds. 
This evening we are going for a long drive to 
one of the parks, and to-morrow at noon we 
leave for Warsaw, where we will probably spend 
only one day, on our way to Paris. We expect 
to be in Paris by Saturday, and after that our 
hard traveling will be over. 

Russia is a very interesting country, and I am 
so glad to have seen something of it. Ever since 
I was a child it has been my ambition to visit St. 
Petersburg, and now that it is an accomplished 
fact I can scarcely realize it. 

Will be very glad to hear from you on our 
arrival in Paris, and hope all is well with you 
and all my friends. 

Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

All the family join me in sending love to you. 

(96 ) 

Paris, August 13, 1890. 
My dear Father : 

On our arrival here on the loth I was delighted 
to receive three letters from you. My last was 
written from Moscow on the 4th. We left Mos- 
cow the next day, 5th, and were twenty hours 
on the train before reaching Warsaw. Poland 
belongs to Russia, so we were still on Russian 
soil, and the weather having turned very warm 
we found ourselves uncomfortable from the heat. 
Warsaw has 450,000 people, and although it 
is a fine city, it is not nearly as handsome nor so 
picturesque as either Moscow or St. Petersburg. 
We remained there only twenty-four hours, and 
did not attempt to do more than to drive about 
the city. It was very hot when we left, but a 
thunderstorm cooled the air during the afternoon, 
and we had a comfortable night on our way to 
Berhn. Most of the country between Moscow 
and Warsaw is level and fertile. It abounds in 
pine and birch forests and is a very fine farm- 
ing country. There are large quantities of wheat 
grown, which is stacked in the fields for want of 
barns wherein to store it, and in several instances 
we saw the grain being threshed out with flails, 
in the old-fashioned way. We never once saw 
a reaper in all those great level fields of waving 
grain, but hundreds of men and women were en- 
gaged in cutting the wheat with sickles. There 
are also immense fields of clover in full bloom, 
as bright and beautiful as a huge bed of roses. 
We saw large numbers of cattle and sheep^ 

and as there were no fences at all I could not 
help wondering how they were kept out of the 
grain. The country reminded me of Canada in 
everything but its funny thatched villages, and 
they did not compare very favorably with our 
own flourishing towns, glistening with white paint 
and cleanliness. I must say that on the whole I 
like the Turks better than I do the Russians, 
because if the Turks are dirty they are at least 
picturesque in their dirt, whereas the Russians 
are not. 

We arrived at Berlin on the 8th, and took up 
our quarters at the same hotel in which we stayed 
seven years ago. I like Berlin ; it is a beautiful 
city, clean and neat, with nice wide streets, smooth 
pavements, and a ring of honesty about its peo- 
ple. The Germans may be slow, but they are 
much more reliable and honest than many of 
their more active-minded brethren. It was de- 
lightful to give ourselves up to the business of 
resting, and although we were there less than 
two days we did a good deal of solid work in 
that direction. 

Since reaching Paris on Sunday morning we 
have been very busy attending to our shopping 
and visiting with our relatives. The Smiths are 
out in the country again, and have a lovely little 
home only ten miles from the city. We were all 
out there to dinner last night, and they are to 
dine with us at our hotel to-morrow night. I 
went to see Madame d'Harmonon yesterday and 
had a nice visit with her. She said Mrs. Fisher, 

Kate, and I were her model boarders, and she 
would like to have us spend next winter with her. 
Will is growing all the time. He is "now taller 
and weighs a little more than his father. 


News came a few days ago that the Hill School 
had burned down. If nothing was saved, Will 
has lost about five hundred dollars* worth in 
books, furniture, pictures, camera, wheel, etc. 
We hear that the Mo. Car & Fd'ry. Co. have 
also had a fire, but as yet have not had any letter 
from Mr. Bixby, telling about it. William does 
not worry, for it would do no good, and then he 
has such wonderful control over his feelings that 
when he makes up his mind not to worry that is 
the end of it. William and Will have gone out 
to some entertainment, but we have all been so 
busy to-day that the rest of us were glad to stay 
quietly at home. We have comfortable rooms, 
and such a pretty, cosy sitting-room, and are 
really enjoying Paris very much. Mr. Smith's 
son, a little older than Will, is over here for his 
vacation, and the two young men are having a 
nice time together. 

We go to London about the 25th for two 
weeks, and then to Scotland and Ireland for the 
remainder of our stay on this side of the water. 
Our holiday is drawing to a close, and I think it 
will be very nice to get home and settle down 
once more in my own house. Hattie Sawyer is 
coming to Paris in a few days to make us a little 

Now I must not weary your patience any 

longer, dear. All send much love to you, but 
the largest budget comes from 
Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

1 2 Weymouth Street, Portland Place, London, 
September 3, 1890. 
My DEAR Father : 

I received your forty-first letter on Monday 
I St, with inclosures from Eula and Florence. 
They were all very welcome indeed. I am 
glad Florence passed her examinations so well 
and that the girls are having such a pleasant time. 

In my last letter I made a misstatement as to 
the population of London. It has over 5,000,000 
people, and extends thirteen miles one way and 
sixteen miles the other, including the suburbs. 
The city has 1 5,000 cabs, tramcars,and omnibuses, 
besides all the private carriages. About 30,000 
vehicles and 140,000 pedestrians pass the Man- 
sion House, which is the official residence of the 
Lord Mayor, during eight hours of every working 
day. There are 14,000 police in London. It is 
truly a monster city, and one peculiarity about it 
is that no one part of the town seems to be much 
better than another. It is very even in the con- 
dition of its streets and in the construction of the 
buildings. There are handsome buildings every- 
where, and there are plain ones, but the streets 
are all well paved and are kept quite clean. 

Last Saturday we had a fine coach ride of sev- 
enty-four miles through a most beautiful country. 

( loo ) 
We started at 10.45 ^^^ were home again at seven 
o'clock. We changed horses every ten miles and 
had a good dinner at the other end of the route. 
Sunday afternoon we took a carriage and drove 
for nearly three hours in the city and parks, and 
on Monday we went on the Thames, down to 
Greenwich, and came home by the underground 
railway. We enjoyed seeing the shipping of all 
sorts, and the manufactories along the banks of 
the river. Sometimes there were so many barges 
and boats in the river that our boat had hard 
work to get through, and the worst of it was that 
the boat was so crowded that we had to stand up. 
We often use the underground railroad, as it 
is very convenient but not very pleasant, on 
account of the smoke. London would have a 
hard time to get along without that railroad. 
I like riding in the hansoms. The driver sits 
up behind, so there is nothing to interfere with 
one's view, and the vehicle having only two 
wheels can slip in and out where a carriage could 
not go at all. Yesterday afternoon we went down 
into the city on top of a 'bus, and it was great 
fun. One of our horses fell down and there was 
quite a good deal of excitement among some of 
the deck passengers for a little while. 

We are thinking of going to Brighton, the 
swell seaside resort, perhaps to-morrow. We may 
go down by coach and come back by train, and 
we also want to see Windsor Castle while we are 
here, as we did not go there when we were here 
before. We have had five days of as perfect 

( lOI ) 

weather as any one could desire. The sun can 
really shine in London, and I did not think it 
could. Last night we had a little shower, and it 
is cloudy to-day, so we are going to content our- 
selves with seeing something in the city, instead 
of trying to make any excursion outside. We are 
enjoying our housekeeping very much ; the only 
danger is that we will all over-eat of the good 
things Mrs. Bowden provides at William*s sug- 
gestion. For you must know that he is the 
housekeeper and orders all the meals. Will is 
six feet and one fourth inch high, and no signs 
of stopping as yet. He is shaving now, and feels 
very proud of the stubbiness of his newly-cut 
whiskers. All send much love. We are a sub- 
stantial looking party, and hope to retain our 
plumpness in spite of the ocean voyage, which we 
shall make in about a month from this time. 

Your last letter to me will be written on the 
15th', just about the time you receive this. Then 
you can send me a line to the Windsor Hotel, 
New York, about the 5th of October, please. I 
shall keep on writing all the time we remain on 
this side, and afterwards too, of course. Love to 
all, and your dear self in particular. 
Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Liverpool, September 12, 1890. 
My dear Father : 

I have not had a letter from you since the ist, 
but it may be owing to our leaving London and 

( I02 ) 

changing our address. Our housekeeping in Lon- 
don was a great success, and we were very sorry to 
give it up at the end of two weeks. Last Satur- 
day we had another coaching trip, to see Windsor 
Castle. We drove twenty-nine miles, a great deal 
of the time by the side of the Thames, which is 
very winding and picturesque out in the country 
where the green banks slope down to the water's 
edge. Windsor is quite a large town with the 
castle overlooking the Thames. The castle itself 
is an enormous pile of buildings, occupying a 
great amount of ground, and compares favorably 
in every respect with any palace we have seen. 
We passed under the windows of the queen's 
own apartments, and admired the fine views she 
must enjoy very much. Will took some pictures 
of the place, and I picked some ivy leaves to put 
among my collection of leaves and flowers. Just 
as Will had finished getting as many views as he 
wanted, a guard came up and informed him that 
it was against the rule for photographs to be 
taken on the grounds, but as he did not care for 
any more it did not trouble him in the least. 

Mr. McCool joined us just before we left Lon- 
don. We started on Tuesday morning and went 
down to Brighton on the seacoast for a day. It 
was lovely there, and the next time we come over 
we mean to spend at least two weeks there. It is 
quite a large city and has four miles of beach, with 
a beautiful drive and any number of attractions 
in the shape of rowboats, bathing wagons, beach 
chairs, etc. We could scarcely get Will away, as 

( I03 ) 

he wanted to have some sea baths and fishing. 
From there we went to Oxford, the university 
town, saw the twenty-three colleges there and 
went into a good many of them. That was a 
charming place and very interesting on account 
of its great educational advantages. The colleges 
are all very attractive ; of course some of them 
are more so than others, but they seem to be very 
pleasant places in which to spend one's school 

For two weeks we have had no rain, and lovely 
weather all the time. A few days were quite 
warm, but it is cool and pleasant again, and we 
are hoping for fine weather at the English Lakes, 
where we expect to go this afternoon. We came 
here yesterday, wishing to attend to some business, 
and then it is on our way to Lake Windermere. 
We feel pretty well acquainted with Liverpool 
now, and very much at home. We have not 
quite decided as to going to Scotland, or leaving 
it for another time. If we do not go there I will 
not see Charlie. William is getting rather tired 
of traveling, and feels more like settling down 
somewhere till the time comes for sailing. I can- 
not set my mind to writing long letters, for it 
seems needless when we are to go home so soon, 
and my American correspondents seem to feel 
the same way about it, as I get very few letters 
now. All send much love to you, and so do I, 

Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

( I04 ) 

BowNESs ON Windermere, England, 
September 17, 1890. 

My dear Father : 

I have not received a letter from you since 
September ist, and must have missed one, per- 
haps two. I know you have written, for you 
have been so good about writing every week since 
I have been over here, so am quite sure it is not 
your fault. 

My last letter to you was written on the 12th 
at Liverpool, just before we started for the Eng- 
lish Lakes. Friday night found us in this quiet, 
lovely spot, and we have enjoyed our surround- 
ings very much. 

Bowness is a little town of about 2000 inhab- 
itants, on the shore of Windermere, the largest 
and prettiest of the English Lakes. English 
people have a notion that there is no scenery in 
the world to compare with this in beauty, and it 
certainly is very pretty, but we have numerous 
lakes on our side of the water quite as lovely if 
not more so. Our hotel is on the hillside and 
overlooks the lake, with its green slopes and 
wooded hillsides opposite, and numerous pictur- 
esque little islands dotting the sparkling surface 
of the water. We are very fortunate in having 
good weather here, for it has been wet all sum- 
mer, and only cleared up a few days before we 

We went on a delightful coaching trip last Sat- 
urday, when I sat on the box seat where I could 
watch the four horses as well as drink in the 

( I05 ) 

beautiful views. It is a good deal like Scotch 
scenery in this part of England, having many 
quite high and rugged looking mountains covered 
with heather. Steamers ply up and down the 
lake and connect with trains at either end, and we 
have taken some very pleasant trips on the water. 
Yesterday we went to see the ruins of Furness 
Abbey, which was founded in 1127. It was an 
immense monastery in its prime, and is perhaps the 
largest ruin in this part of the world. The stone 
walls still look very strong, and it seems strange 
that such a massive structure could ever fall into 
decay. It is almost covered with masses of ivy 
and woodbine, which make it very beautiful. Will 
is in his element here, and spends his time in 
rowing and fishing. He supplies our breakfast 
table with delicious fish, principally pike. One 
which he caught on Monday weighed at least 
five pounds, and was a beauty. To-day we have 
planned a drive to some of the noted places in 
the neighborhood. Every inch of ground is his- 
torical and noted for some important event, or as 
being the birthplace of some poet or author or 
royal personage. We expect to go to Edinburgh 
to-morrow and will spend about a week in Scot- 
land, leaving Ireland for the last week of our 
stay here. Two weeks from to-morrow we 
will go on board the City of New York, at 
Queenstown, and I make no further plans till we 
land in New York. We hope for a smooth pas- 
sage, but will have to take just what is provided 
for us in the way of weather. I shall see Charlie 

( io6 ) 
in Glasgow, probably, but we expect to be there 
only one day, having seen the city pretty thor- 
oughly seven years ago. 

William and I celebrated our twenty-seventh 
wedding anniversary yesterday. Poor William 
has suffered with toothache more or less ever 
since he has been over here, and on Monday he 
went to a dentist and had the tooth taken out. 
Now he feels like himself again, and we believe 
that the trouble will be only a thing of the past. 

We are all reckoning on having a nice long 
visit from you after our return home, and will be 
delighted to see you as soon as you can make it 
convenient to come. It is not likely I can leave 
home right away, after being away so long, and 
so this time we will expect you to do the visiting. 
We shall stay at the Windsor Hotel, in New 
York, and I hope to find a letter waiting for me 
saying you will come to St. Louis very soon. All 
the family join me in much love to you. 

Hoping to get a letter from you in the next 
mail, and thanking you for being so faithful in 
writing me during the past year, with oceans of 
love to my dear father, I am always 
Your affectionate daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Gresham Hotel, Dublin, Ireland, 

September 26, 1890. ^ 

My dear Father : 

I received some letters to-night from Canada 
dated September 8th, but none from you. The 

( I07 ) 
last letter I had from you reached me September 
I St, so several must be missing and I cannot 
understand it at all. 

I wrote you last from Lake Windermere, in 
England. On the i8th we went to Edinburgh 
and stayed till Monday morning. We saw the 
Castle and Holyrood Palace, John Knox's, and 
a good many interesting places, besides climbing 
Scott's monument ; but we were most impressed 
by the splendid cantilever bridge over the Frith 
of Forth. I actually dreamed of crossing it, the 
other night, but that was as near as I came to 
doing it, for on our way to the Scotch Lakes our 
train did not go that way, as we had hoped and 
expected that it would. We took a favorite trip 
through that part of Scotland which they call the 
Trossachs, and sailed on Lakes Katrine and 
Lomond, besides having several coach rides. For- 
tunately the weather was fine for the two days of 
our trip, otherwise we would not have had such 
a delightful time. Tuesday night we reached 
Glasgow, and having already notified brother 
Charlie of our arrival, he came and spent the 
evening with us. He looks very well indeed, 
and seems to feel happy and much at home. 
Yesterday morning we woke up to find it raining 
hard, and the wind blowing great guns. As we 
were to cross the Irish Channel during the day, 
the prospect was rather discouraging ; however, 
we left Glasgow about half past nine and before 
long it cleared off, and the wind went down a good 
deal, so we had a very comfortable passage, after 

( io8 ) 
all. We crossed at Stranraer, where William's 
father and mother lived, and we landed at Larne, 
and put our feet for the first time on Irish soil. 
I think Ireland well named in being called the 
" Emerald Isle," for anything more green than 
the whole country I never saw. The fields are 
bright green, and the divisions are made with 
beautiful green hedges, instead of ugly rail or 
stone fences, while there is a great deal of wood- 
land and shrubbery everywhere. We took train 
up to Belfast and arrived there about five o*clock, 
thankful that we had crossed the Channel for the 
last time without being sick. 

Belfast, much to my surprise, is a large city of 
225,000 inhabitants, and is mostly a Protestant 
community. We spent to-day there very plea- 
santly, seeing the city. We drove all around 
town in one of the funny Irish jaunting cars, 
where the people sit facing the side, and back to 
back. It was great fun for a little while, but I 
would not care to ride all day in that fashion, 
especially aa one feels very much like tumbling 
oflF into the street, at every jolt of the vehicle, and 
it jolts all the time. We left Belfast at 3.30 to- 
day, and at seven sat down to a most excellent 
dinner at this hotel. 

Dublin is not very much larger than Belfast, 
but has more of interest about it. We will spend 
to-morrow here, and on Saturday will go to Kil- 
larney to see the lovely Irish Lakes. Our train 
came at the rate of forty-four miles an hour from 
Belfast to Dublin, so you see we are not quite 

( I09 ) 
away from civilization, even if we are in old Ire- 
land. Both in Scotland and in Ireland the oats 
harvest is still going on. They have no barns in 
this country, and we see the grain stacked in 
the fields, waiting for the threshing ; some of the 
threshing is already done. Charlie says he has 
often wanted to teach the Scotch people how to 
bind grain. He says they are very slow and awk- 
ward about it. 

One week from now we will be on the steamer 
on our way to New York. I hope old ocean will 
treat us kindly this time. Our family are rather 
tired and arc going to retire early, so I must close 
my letter. Hoping that you are well and happy, 
and looking for a letter every day, with much 
love, in which William and Will, and Mrs. Fisher 
and Kate all join heartily. 

Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

The Windsor, New York. 
October 8, 1890. 

My dear Father : 

On our arrival at the hotel at 10.30 this morn- 
ing I found your welcome letter. It is good to 
know that you were well, for after a few days at 
sea, when one is really out of the world, letters 
telling of the welfare of dear friends are more 
than ever welcome. 

We have had a very busy and fatiguing day 
with visitors, etc., and now it is nearly midnight, 
but 1 must send you a short letter to announce 


our safe arrival, before I sleep. The last few days 
of our stay in Ireland were very pleasant, the 
weather being all the time in our favor. After 
leaving Killarney on Wednesday last, just a week 
ago, we went to Blarney to see the ruined castle 
and to kiss the Blarney stone. You know I have 
often been accused of that, but they do say that 
when one has actually kissed the really truly 
Blarney stone, the truth does not dwell any longer 
in that person, because of the desire to say plea- 
sant things always. It was a beautiful day, and 
we had a charming walk of a mile and more 
through lovely lanes hedged with holly and 
blackberry bushes, in order to reach the castle. 
After our visit there we went by train to Cork 
and spent a few hours seeing that old-fashioned 
town, and took supper at Queenstown the same 

We embarked for home on Thursday at 1.15, 
and made the run to Sandy Hook in five days, 
twenty-one hours, and nineteen minutes, the 
quickest on record excepting one which was made 
by the City of Paris. We had all sorts of weather, 
some good, some bad, and some indifferent, and 
we behaved accordingly. When the sea was 
smooth we were on deck, where we wrapped our- 
selves in our rugs, stretched at full length in our 
steamer chairs, and enjoyed the pure air, the gen- 
tle motion of the boat, and the vast expanse of 
water around us. When the sea was rough we 
remained in our berths and groaned with seasick- 
ness and wished ourselves anywhere, if we could 

( "I ) 

only be on dry land once more. But on the 
whole we had a very comfortable voyage, and 
proved to be better sailors than we had expected 
to be. 

The steamer City of New York is a magnifi- 
cent boat 500 feet in length and rides the waves 
splendidly. It takes more than an ordinary storm 
to affect her, so when we were tossed about like 
an eggshell on the water the other night, we 
knew it was no slight storm we had to fight. 
There were 2000 people on the ship, including 
first and second class passengers, steerage, and 
officers and crew. Quite a little city we were, and 
where all trades were represented. How glad we 
were, early this morning, to see land and to feel 
that we were really on American soil once more, 
and how amusing it was to see the different as- 
pects of the 600 first class passengers, as hoods 
and caps were discarded and fine hats and bon- 
nets appeared instead. 

As soon as we got on shore we came up to the 
Windsor, where we found a warm welcome from 
friends in person and by letter. It does not seem, 
nearly so long since we left New York, but it is 
a whole year lacking ten days, and yet all seems 
so natural and homelike on this side of the water 
that I almost feel as if I had never been so far 
away. I have visited many new and interesting 
countries, but after all there is nothing like one's 
native land. 

We are fast being separated already, as Mrs. 
and Miss Fisher left for Batavia this evening. 

( "2) 

Will goes to Philadelphia to-morrow and William 
and I start for St. Louis to-morrow afternoon. 
We expect to be at home by seven o'clock on 
Friday evening, about the time you will receive 
this letter, or perhaps before. I will try to ar- 
range it some way to be in Aylmer this autumn. 
I must see my dear father before long, and if he 
will not come to me I must go to him. 

With much love to all friends, and to yourself 
in particular. 

Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Dampfer, Ems, January lo, 1893. 
My dear William: 

We did not start as soon as we expected be- 
cause of one late passenger, and the non-arrival 
of the luggage of four young ladies. At last the 
man came, but the baggage did not, and we were 
off. It was cold for two days, and has been quite 
mild and balmy ever since until to-day there is a 
cold rain. Wednesday night I came to dinner 
but had to leave with the soup course, and the 
saloon knew me no more until Saturday night. It 
has been rough all the time excepting one day, and 
if you could see how high the waves are and how 
the boat rolls, you would be amazed that I could 
be calmly seated at the table writing letters. You 
may be able to tell by the very irregular letters 
how frequent the lurches from side to side are. I 
cannot command a great flow of language under 
the circumstances, nor would I have energy to 

( 113 ) 

put It on paper any way, when all my tact and 
strength are required to keep my writing mate- 
rials on the table and not under it. 

We have all turned out to be very fair sailors, 
and Kate will ever be a monument of glory, as 
she has not been sick at all. They call her the 
" old salt " since last Thursday, when she was al- 
most the only woman in the saloon at meals. We 
found Mrs. Dudgeon as soon as you had gone, 
and she was the lady whom Kate suggested to 
you on the deck. She is very charming and sits 
with us at the chief engineer's table, and we have 
very jolly times. Herr Eicke, the chief engineer, 
is a typical German, large, stout, and fair, with 
merry blue eyes, and is very nice to us. Kate 
and Alice sit on his left, while Mrs. Dudgeon and 
I are on his right. Since luncheon Kate and I 
went to the purser's office to change my Ameri- 
can money and get some stamps. He had neither 
French gold nor English money, so I got Italian 
notes, as we expect to be in Naples three days, 
and are going to make a trip over to Ischia if the 
weather is fine. We are rather discouraged about 
the weather, as it seems to get worse instead of 
better, the further south we go. There was a 
petition circulating yesterday among the passen- 
gers to induce the captain to stop at Palermo, 
but the fiat has gone forth to-day that he will 
not stop there. So our only landings en route 
will be at Gibraltar and Naples. 

There are some very pleasant people on board 
(besides ourselves), and a very jolly crowd they 

( "4 ) 
are. Last night nearly every one was in the sa- 
loon playing cards, cribbage, chess, etc., and just 
after we had finished our game of bezique and 
had ordered three milk punches, Mrs. Bell, who 
has the captain's room, and had so many flowers 
and so much fruit, sent us some grapes and man- 
darins, so we had quite a feast. We like this boat 
very much indeed. The table is excellent, the 
service admirable, and everything is as clean 
and neat as the most fastidious soul could de- 
sire. When we went up to get our stamps from 
the purser we met Herr Eicke who asked us to 
come and inspect his den, and then he showed us 
the engine. 

We hope to get to Gibraltar on Thursday 
morning, if all is well, and have been looking up 
the code to find a word which will suitably ex- 
press our feeHngs, and think that " abolition '* 
comes nearest the mark. We certainly have not 
had a pleasant voyage, and yet it has not been 
cold nor violently stormy, and we are all well and 
have been so excepting for two days. They ex- 
pect to give us four hours at Gibraltar, which 
will be ample time for seeing the most interest- 
ing features of that grand fortification. Later I 
will be able to speak more intelligently on that 

Counting the real time, it is just one week 
ago that we sailed, and in some ways it seems 
three times as long. Here is a list of the 
daily runs: 290, 366, 346, 367, 376, 382, 375. 
I suppose you and Will had a lovely time in 


Washington and in Braddock, and are about 
starting for St. Louis, and by the time our first 
letters reach you all your plans for Eddy will 
have been completed. 

Now I must write a few words to father and 
Patie, and it tires me dreadfully to write here. It 
seems too bad that letters take so long to go to 
you. How stale our present thoughts and feel- 
ings will be when you get them ! Alice and Kate 
send a great deal of love to you and Will, and so 
do I. 

Your loving wife, 

Lizzie McMillan* 

Hotel Royal, Naples, 
Sunday, January 15, 1893, 7.30 p. m. 

My dear William : 

If you could only see your three tramps at this 
moment ! You must know that we are in " Sunny 
Italy,'' and we are sitting just as close to the fire 
in our grate as we can. We have two tables with our 
writing materials near us, and a lamp and a candle 
to illuminate the scene. After giving you this 
bird's-eye view I must return to the date of my 
last writing, when we were expecting to reach 
Gibraltar the next day. Well, Wednesday night 
was a perfect nightmare. It was the roughest 
night of the voyage, and the captain was on the 
bridge all night, and when morning came the sea 
presented anything but a pleasant aspect. I rose 
at 6.30 and at seven was on deck, as I was deter- 
mined to see land as soon as any was to be 

( "6) 

seen. I was the first woman out, and only one 
man was before me, and there on the right was 
Africa, with a Hghthouse on the point. The morn- 
ing was foggy and wet, so there was a Hmit to our 
vision, but soon land appeared on the left and we 
were off the Spanish main. Wednesday even- 
ing the light from Cape St. Vincent on the coast 
of Portugal was seen, but we went off from shore 
again in a short time. About ten o*clock Thurs- 
day morning we reached Gibraltar bay, and had a 
grand view of the famous rock and fortifications. 
It seemed quite natural, as it was just as the pic- 
tures had always represented it. The bay was 
full of shipping of every description, and it was 
hard to find an anchorage, but after many delays 
a tender came and about forty of the passengers 
went on shore. It seemed very delightful to step 
on solid ground once more. The first thing we 
did was to get a man who spoke English (and as 
English is taught in the schools there we had 
no trouble about it), who secured a funny look- 
ing carriage for us and drove us to the American 
consul to get a permit to visit the fortifications. 
The consul came down to the carriage and in- 
vited us upstairs while he made out the permit. 
His parlors were quaint, with a mixture of Amer- 
ican and foreign furniture and decorations, and 
very attractive, with lots of flowers everywhere. 
When he found we were from St. Louis, he 
said a relative of his used to live there. This 
relative proved to have been General Reynolds, 
and he was very much astonished and pleased 

( "7 ) 

when I said I had known the general very 
well indeed. He gave us some roses, urged 
us to remain longer, and finally parted with 
us in a most friendly manner. We then drove 
through the quaint old Spanish town, ascend- 
ing all the while those narrow streets so com- 
mon in these old countries, with alleys of stone 
steps going up and up till it wearies one to 
look at them, and soon found ourselves at the 
iron gateway to one of the galleries leading to 
the guns. They say there are twenty-seven of 
these galleries, in the rock, but we traversed only 
one, for the way was very steep and we were 
obliged to walk. When we reached the first out- 
look, or gun, we went outside to get the view, 
which was certainly a magnificent one. On the 
left was the bay with its numerous water craft of 
all sizes and kinds, while on the right lay the blue 
Mediterranean, looking so calm and placid com- 
pared with the turbulent Atlantic we had just 
left. In front of us was Spain, looking moun- 
tainous and rugged, but bearing many beautiful 
green spots. Gibraltar itself was like a green 
oasis in the desert, it was so covered with beau- 
tiful gardens and lovely shade trees. The air 
was as balmy as April and the weather quite as 
changeable. Every little while we would have a 
sharp shower and then the sun would come out 
again as brightly as ever, but as we were so for- 
tunate as to be in the carriage whenever it rained, 
it only made a pleasant diversion for us. 

The drive from the English town where we 

( ii8 ) 
landed to the Spanish town was through a hedge 
of aloes in full bloom, and I wish you could have 
seen it. After our visit to the fortifications was 
over we came to the town, did a little shopping, 
of course, then found a pastry shop where we could 
get some cakes and a cup of good strong tea; and 
how good it was ! It fairly makes me hungry to 
think of it even now, just after a splendid table 
d'hote dinner at our favorite Hotel Royal des 
Etrangers. The last thing we did was to go 
to the flower and fruit market, get a basket, and 
have it filled with lovely looking mandarins and 
covered with great bunches of violets and nar- 
cissus. Just across the street was the Moorish 
market where imposing Moors in native costume 
and great white turbans oflfered queer baskets 
made of hemp or rope, and chickens for sale. 
They bowed most profoundly to us, but did not 
urge us to buy, as they probably saw we were in 
need of neither chickens — lives ones, at least 
— nor baskets. By this time we were a mile or 
more from our steamer, and so took a carriage 
down to the dock. We found that one day in 
Gibraltar had cost us each the modest sum of two 
dollars and a trifle more. 

We were to have weighed anchor at five o'clock, 
but owing to delays in getting coal we did not 
get away until eight, and were glad of it, as it 
gave us the opportunity of seeing Gibraltar by 
night. It was one of the most beautiful sights I 
have ever seen, and as we sailed out of the bay, 
the star-studded heavens and the thousands of 

( "9) 

lights on Gibraltar made it seem more like a fairy 
story one would read, than like reality. Of course 
you know that Gibraltar has been an English 
fortress for 200 years, has 500 guns, and keeps 
provisions on hand constantly to supply 150,000 
men for two years. 

That night was smooth sailing, and we thought 
that now we were on the Mediterranean we would 
feel no more the pitching and rolling with which 
we had become so familiar. Alas, our dreams of 
bliss were not to be realized so soon, for morning 
found a heavy sea running, which only changed 
to increase, and none of the blue sky of Italian 
renown was visible, and not even the sea was blue, 
but a dirty gray like any of our western lakes. 
Yesterday afternoon was the worst of all, when 
the vessel rolled so much that we were afraid 
sometimes that she could never get up again. 
After a while a sail was hoisted and then the 
waves went down, so that we had a delightful 
evening playing bezique and whist. Since the 
two days' illness just at the outset, I have been 
perfectly well and have not missed a meal. It 
seemed very odd to feel so well, when I had to 
hang on with one hand, to dress, or eat, or write 
with the other, as best I could. The ship's com- 
pany have been very well, as a general thing, 
and there were few vacancies either at lunch or 
dinner. More than twenty passengers came on 
board at Gibraltar, and they say that forty will 
embark at Naples. About that number will also 
remain here. The four young ladies who had to 

( I20 ) 

leave New York without their luggage will per- 
haps go up the Nile on the steamer with us. They 
are very nice girls, are from Boston, and two of 
them we call Norah and Hoppie, because one 
of them reminds us of Miss Pettibone, and the 
other of Miss Hopkins. Another of them, Miss 
Choate, said she had heard of me through her 
sister, who is a friend of Mrs. Dillon. You see 
the world is very small, after all. 

This morning at ten o^clock we saw Ischia in the 
distance, but it took a long time to get to Naples 
after that. The morning was cold and not very 
bright, so a good many jokes were made at the 
expense of this sunny clime, and we shivered in 
all our warm wraps. To old stagers like our- 
selves who had been here before, it was amusing 
to watch the enthusiasm of the others, and we 
gave our information about different disputed 
points with calm superiority. We cam^e on shore 
at three p. m. on a tender, found the runner for 
this hotel as soon as he came on board, and with 
his assistance passed the customs with our satch- 
els very easily, and were soon rattling over the 
streets of Naples to the merry crack of the whips 
and exciting cries of the cochers. We are very 
nicely settled in rooms adjoining each other, and 
have a good fire in the larger room. It is cold and 
cloudy in Naples, but we are hoping for sunshine 
to-morrow. Our boat sails at five o'clock to-mor- 
row, so we will only have time to take a drive 
and do some shopping. 

Now I must end this long letter and not weary 

( 121 ) 

you too much. Give much love to Will and 
to our friends, in all of which Alice and Kate 
join me. I hope you received the message from 

Your affectionate wife, 

Lizzie McMillan. 
Mailed letters to you and Will at Gibraltar. 

Hotel Khedivial, Alexandria, Egypt, 
January 19, 1893. 

My dear William : 

Here we are at last, after two weeks* buffeting 
by winds and waves, in Egypt and in Alexandria, 
the seat of learning many hundreds of years ago. 
Well, the natives scarcely look, many of them, 
as if they had lived up to their ancient reputa- 
tion, but I dare say they will be quite clever 
enough to extort many a pound from us without 
our being wise enough to protect our own inter- 

It seems quite an age since I wrote you last 
from Naples, and indeed many unpleasant sensa- 
tions have been my lot since then, besides a good 
many pleasant ones. The only day we had in 
Naples was not a nice one, being cold and wet. 
On Monday morning we found old Vesuvius 
covered with snow, and the streets of the city very 
wet from the rain which had fallen in the night. 
However, we went out, all the same, and wan- 
dered about the streets, admiring the beautiful 
things in the shop windows and occasionally going 
in to ask the prices of some of them. The streets 

( 122 ) 

were as full of people and as noisy and fascinating 
as ever, so that we did not get back to the hotel 
till nearly two o'clock. Then we had some lunch, 
paid our bill, and departed in the hotel 'bus for 
the dock. There was the same tender by which 
we had come on shore, but instead of the tickets 
from our steamer, which passed us free to the 
shore, they wanted two shillings to take us back. 
We politely but firmly declined, got off the 
tender, and with the assistance of our hotel 
runner, and a small fee, found a boat to take us 
over for one franc each. We had a nice row and 
reached the steamer a long time before the tender 

At five o'clock Monday night we left Naples, 
with the illuminated city on our left and Vesu- 
vius glowing on our right. It was a fine sight, 
but was soon lost in the mist of a damp evening. 
Tuesday morning Herr Eicke called us at seven 
to come on deck and see the entrance to the 
Straits of Messina. It is only about one mile and 
a half wide at the entrance from the north, and 
nearly opposite each other are the two points 
called Scylla and Charybdis, with rocks or whirl- 
pools between, which render navigation often 
dangerous. I never understood the full mean- 
ing of that old saying before : " Escaped Scylla 
to fall into Charybdis." The former still re- 
tains its old name, but the latter is now called 
Point Faro. The shores of both Italy and Sicily 
presented a very rugged appearance, and snow- 
covered mountains were to be seen on either 

( 1^3 ) 
hand, but Etna declined to be interviewed and 
held a cloud closely about his grand old head. 
We saw our favorite town, Taormina, and knew 
that just beyond was the famous mountain, but 
although many watched long and anxiously, no- 
thing could be seen of its stately grandeur. By 
ten o'clock that morning we were in the open sea, 
with great waves tossing us about as if we had 
not coaled up at Naples, and had plenty of bal- 
last. I was very miserable all day and all night, 
for the rolling and pitching never ceased until 
Wednesday morning. Yesterday was lovely and 
it has been growing finer ever since. The sea was 
quiet and every one was happy once more, partly 
from that and a good deal from the fact that the 
captain had promised to land us in Alexandria 
to-day, if the weather should continue fine. It 
did, and at noon to-day we were in Alexandria 
Bay, under charge of a pilot who actually brought 
us to the dock and allowed us to land by the gang- 
plank. To be sure we got into a boat again with 
our luggage, and were rowed over the bay to the 
Custom House by swarthy natives, who are as 
lithe, graceful, and active as cats, while at the same 
time they are possessed of prodigious strength. 
Just at this point the dinner-bell rang, and as it 
was already 7.30 and our luncheon on board the 
Ems was at 11.30, you need not be surprised to 
learn that we were ready to respond to the wel- 
come sound. We had to go down to the ground 
floor, cross an open court, and then found our- 
selves in the Salon, where at the long table d'hote 

( 1^4 ) 
we found nearly twenty of our fellow voyagers. 
The dinner was very good, but not nearly so good 
nor so varied as our table on the ship, and after 
it was over, ending with Turkish coffee, we had 
a chat with some of those same young ladies men- 
tioned in my last, and who may accompany us on 
our trip to the Holy Land. 

We had no trouble with the Custom House ; 
none of our trunks were opened, but we were 
rather anxious about some of our luggage, as it 
was not on our boat ; however, when we arrived 
at the Hotel Khedivial it was waiting in the hall 
for us, and our rooms were ready. Your letter 
must have been to the point, as we find ourselves 
very comfortably accommodated, and have every 

As in Greece, men do the work of the rooms, 
but they are natives, dressed in their native cos- 
tumes, baggy trousers, turbans, and all. After 
looking at our rooms and having a cup of tea, we 
took a dragoman and went for a walk, and saw 
many a queer sight. Such confusion and mixing 
of languages, people, and luggage, you never in 
all your life could have imagined, as that which 
took place on the steamer's deck, on the dock 
and in the boats, to-day, attending the landing. 
It was all so novel and amusing that we could 
not help laughing, even when we remembered 
that we might never see our dear bags again. 

As usual, we came off in fine condition, sound 
in wind and in limb, and with more than half our 
wits about us, even after so much experience in 

( 125 ) 

so short a time. Alice received such a nice letter 
from that guide, David Jarnal, who places him- 
self at our disposal for March if we insist, or as 
he suggests from the middle of March to the 
middle of April, for the trip to the Holy Land. 
He says, as others have told us, that March is 
generally rainy until the middle, and that after 
that the country is much more beautiful, with 
foliage and wild flowers. 

Now I must try to write at least one more 
letter to-night, and must bid you good-night. 
Much love to Will and to your dear self. Alice 
and Kate send much love to both of you, and 
will write soon. We all wish you could be with 
us ; these Oriental countries would please and 
interest you very much. 

Your loving wife, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Sent you the cable code " aboding," as we did 
not want you to feel that we had been so very 
miserable. We really had no storms at all, but a 
rough sea most of the time. They call it a very 
good winter voyage. 

Cairo, Egypt, January 26, 1893. 
Dear Father: 

It is just a week ago to-day since we stepped 
on Egyptian soil ; but it seems as if centuries 
had been condensed into that week. 

Here is where the Pharaohs held sway and 
where Cleopatra reigned supreme in power, as in 
beauty, and to-day we have seen the road which 

( 126 ) 
Moses is supposed to have taken when leading the 
Israelites across the desert out of Egypt. Now, 
there is a great mixture of old and new in the 
country. There is old Cairo, where people live 
as they did perhaps thousands of years ago, and 
there is modern Cairo, where everything looks 
quite European, excepting for the camels and 
donkeys in the streets, and the characteristic 
dress of the native Egyptian, Copt, or Arab. 

We spent only one day in Alexandria, and 
during that day we made the most of our time, 
in order to see as much as possible of the city 
and its surroundings. 

It is not probable that we shall return there, 
because we can get out of the country by another 
route, which will prevent us from retracing our 
steps. We visited the native part of the city, 
driving through their main dwelling streets and 
markets. The latter were very curious, and 
would have looked dirty and unpleasant to you. 

The native Egyptians of the poorer classes 
wear rather scanty clothing. The feet and legs 
are generally bare, but some wear sandals ; then 
there are cotton trousers which come either to 
the knee or ankle and over them is a garment 
similar to a shirt, only it is very long, extending 
almost to the feet. A cap is worn on the head, 
with a large piece of white cloth wound about it ; 
this is called a turban, and over all is a volumi- 
nous mantle, one end of which is thrown over 
the left shoulder. Of course there is a great 
variety of costumes and some of them are really 

( 127 ) 
quite handsome, but the one I have tried to de- 
scribe is the most common. 

The Turkish dress and Syrian costume con- 
sists of the long, full trousers, embroidered vest 
and Zouave jacket, with a bright colored scarf 
around the waist and a fez for the head cover- 
ing, which is usually some shade of red. Some 
of these costumes are very handsome, and be- 
coming to the owner. 

From the markets we went to the Egyptian 
cemetery, and a more desolate spot it would be 
impossible to imagine. The graves are all cov- 
ered with small white clay ovens, to all appear- 
ance, with a little chimney-pot at each end, and 
there is not a tree, a shrub, or a blade of grass 
in the whole place. 

To refresh ourselves, after this doleful sight, 
we drove out of town to see some beautiful gar- 
dens, which once belonged to the late Khedive, 
but which he gave to a Greek friend of his, some 
years ago, as a mark of favor, or as our guide 
said " as backsheesh.'* 

On Saturday morning at nine o'clock we found 
ourselves in a very comfortable railroad car, with 
our faces set toward Cairo. On the way, we 
were continually entertained and amused by 
what we saw from the windows. To be sure the 
country is flat, has comparatively few trees, and 
the villages are built of clay, but the ground was 
well tilled, and wheat, beans, and grass were grow- 
ing in abundance. The whole country was dotted 
over with camels, donkeys, sheep, and goats, and 

( 1^8 ) 

there were quite as many people to be seen as 

The villages were very numerous, as the people 
live in communities and are not isolated as they 
are in our own country. The mud huts were 
huddled close together and resembled the old- 
fashioned oval beehives. That was the only 
point of resemblance, however, for people and 
animals have their shelter in common, and the 
sights and odors of these villages are disagree- 
able to one unaccustomed to them. It seemed 
odd enough to be whirling along on an express 
train, which was really express too, and at the 
same time to be looking out at stately camels 
marching majestically along, wearing a scornful 
expression with their noses in the air, and bear- 
ing on their backs sometimes huge trusses of 
grass suspended by straps and an Arab seated on 
the top wrapped in his cloak. We saw donkeys, 
camels, and goats all quietly grazing together, 
and donkeys laden with panniers so large and 
well filled as almost to conceal the little creatures 
and perhaps carrying a man as well. Donkeys 
and camels are the beasts of burden here, and are 
well employed too. One of the chief diversions 
for visitors coming to Cairo is to ride donkeys 
through the streets with the driver running be- 
hind, pushing and whipping continually. Some 
of the donkeys are very cute and pretty and have 
a real knowing look. 

The station at Cairo on our arrival was a scene 
of confusion, almost if not quite equal to our 

( 1^9 ) 

landing experience. Natives clamored for our 
luggage, the hotel runners were everywhere, and 
the noise was enough to drive a nervous person 
distracted ; fortunately we are not troubled with 
nerves, so were amused and not dismayed, and 
soon found ourselves in the great omnibus 
marked " Shepheard's Hotel." After a few 
minutes' rapid drive along rather narrow and 
quaint, but well paved streets, we were at the 
hotel itself, where we were expected and where 
we have been ever since. One has a view of 
pyramids from the car window before reaching 
Cairo, but it is a distant one and not very satis- 
factory ; so the first drive we took was out to 
see them. There is an avenue arched' by trees 
of fine size which is several miles in length, and 
which leads directly to those huge monuments 
of Egypt's ancient glory, and the scenery is 
quite picturesque on the way. We crossed the 
Nile and found it a large and beautiful river, 
with boats of all sizes moored by the landing 
stages, but it was hard to realize that the won- 
derful stream whose annual overflow has always 
created so much wonder in my mind was actually 
at my feet. 

The pyramids are generally a little disappoint- 
ing at first, because they do not seem as large as 
the imagination has painted them ; but very soon 
they assume greater proportions, until all else 
seems as nothing beside them. I presume we 
shall find them plenty high and broad enough 
when we make the ascent. If the weather should 

( I30 ) 
be fine, we shall attempt it on Saturday, and my 
next letter will tell you how we felt afterwards. 
It seems that not many ladies go up to the top 
of Cheops, and people look rather surprised when 
they hear that we mean to do it. 

We have seen several old mosques which were 
quite interesting. The one which made most 
impression upon us was the University Mosque 
where most Mohammedans come to be educated. 
It is the principal university of Egypt, and the 
students remain from three to five years, or until 
they have mastered the Koran. We saw the 
students at work, sitting each one on his goatskin 
on the flagging of an immense courtyard, which 
is surrounded by the mosque, and they often 
sleep there too. It seemed rather inferior to the 
accommodations and comforts of our colleges in 
America. When a man has finished learning the 
Koran and can read and write in Arabic, his edu- 
cation is considered complete and he may then 
be a teacher or priest. 

To-day we went out several miles to see an 
obelisk on the site of the ancient town of Heli- 
opolis, or On, as it is called in the Bible. It was 
a city of about twelve thousand inhabitants, and 
was in existence before Abraham. The obelisk 
is called Pharaoh's Needle, but no one knows 
which Pharaoh erected it. It is covered with 
hieroglyphics, is sixty-six feet high, and stands 
in the land of Goshen. On our way home we 
were shown a huge sycamore tree which is said to 
grow on the spot where another tree of the same 

( 131 ) 

kind gave shelter and a resting place to the Vir- 
gin on the flight from Egypt. There are many- 
legends of this sort in Egypt, as in Italy, which 
are confidently believed by the people. 

The sacred bird of Egypt is the ibis, and we 
saw many of them this afternoon. They are 
pure white, resembling a wild duck in size and 
shape, and do not appear very timid. We also 
saw that huge bird, the African ostrich, at home 
to-day, when we visited an ostrich farm and 
found eight hundred of them, ranging from two 
days to forty years in age, and in size from one 
foot to eight in height. 

Cairo is a large and rather handsome city, and 
there are many interesting things to see here, 
especially in the bazaars, the native Egyptian 
shops. They are not as picturesque as those of 
Constantinople or Smyrna, but have many beau- 
tiful things which are tempting to visitors. Cairo 
lacks in coloring also, as the dresses are not so 
brilliant and the few domes are not so glittering 
as in Constantinople ; but this has more of Eastern 
life in the constant presence of the camels and 

The Khedive is quite a feature of Cairo, for 
he does not hide himself from his people, as the 
Sultan does. He passes the hotel twice every day 
and has a pleasant smile and salute for every 
one ; I have seen him twice. He spends each 
day at his palace in town, and goes out every 
night to his mother's palace, several miles away. 
We passed it to-day, and it is very unpreten- 

( 132 ) 

tious in appearance, — has orange groves about 
it and looks like a gentleman's country resi- 

We hope to leave for our trip up the Nile 
on Tuesday next, and will be away three weeks. 
Several boats went this week, but the weather is 
so cold I fear they will not have a pleasant time. 
We hear of very severe weather in America, and 
are glad to have escaped it ; it is unusually cold 
for Cairo. Yesterday we had a severe sand storm 
which was so much worse at Alexandria that the 
steamers could not get into the harbor ; conse- 
quently, our mail has not yet arrived. We hope 
for our first batch of letters before going up the 
river. Love to all the family, and especially to 

Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Cairo, January 29, 1893. 
My dear William : 

I did hope very much to get letters from home 
before starting up the Nile, but we go on Tues- 
day, and there will not be another American mail 
in before that time. We will leave orders to have 
our mail sent to Cook's care, and it will follow 
us. I have had four letters, one each from Ger- 
trude, Lucie, Mrs. Lavin, and Patie. Since our 
wind storm on Wednesday, which reminded me 
very much of Eddy, the weather has been lovely. 
The air is bracing but warm in the sun, and is 
gradually growing warmer, so we will probably 
find real June days on our return three weeks 

( 133 ) 

from Tuesday. We are very glad not to have 
started any sooner on that trip, for it was so cold 
that much of the pleasure of sitting on deck 
would have been spoiled. The boats which left 
on Wednesday were very much impeded by the 
sand blocking up the channel, and Cook*s boat 
did not even get away from the dock that day. 
Of course the passengers dared not go away for 
fear the boat might leave without them. We 
smiled and said, " Our usual good luck attends 
us, even in Egypt." We have been making good 
use of our time, and our dragoman, Louis, this 
week, or rather last week, as this is Sunday. We 
have seen several more interesting mosques, and 
the finest and most recent is situated on the cita- 
del hill. It is the mosque in which Mohammed 
Ali surprised and murdered the Mamelukes, and 
we saw the embankment over which one of them 
leaped on horseback and escaped. The mosque 
is enormous, and is completely faced, both in- 
side and out, with alabaster, and is a magnificent 
and imposing structure. Looking at it from a 
distance it reminds me of the Church of Our 
Saviour, in Moscow. The sanctuary itself is 
carpeted with immense Persian rugs of great 
value and beauty. They could not have cost less 
than J 1 0,000, and probably more. In the after- 
noon we went to see the Howling and Dancing 
Dervishes, and I must acknowledge that when 
the creatures got really warmed up to their work 
in this religious ceremony, it was horrible. The 
bendings, twistings, contortions of arms, head. 

( 134 ) 
and body, combined with the groans, grunts, and 
howls which accompanied the movements, made 
a spectacle which was simply indescribable. In- 
side the semicircle of holy men, who were going 
through such violent exercises, there were several 
dancers who turned about on their feet and with 
closed eyes and outstretched arms, at first slowly, 
then faster and faster until they made from forty 
to fifty gyrations in a minute. There was music, 
too, a flute and some drumlike instruments. 
We were glad for the performers and for our- 
selves, too, that the service only lasted an hour 
Afterwards we went to the Isle of Roda, across 
an arm of the Nile, in a scow. It is on the 
shore of this island that Moses is said to have 
been found, but no one knows the spot, and the 
bulrushes all disappeared long ago. We had 
planned to ascend the pyramid yesterday, and as 
Alice had a headache, and did not intend making 
the ascent any way, Kate and I went alone, but 
with our faithful Louis in attendance. It is nine 
miles' drive out there, although from the citadel 
the other day it seemed just across a meadow. 
On the way we passed hundreds of loaded camels, 
and their keepers, who were either riding on top 
with a swaying motion, inevitable when on camel- 
back, or walking by the side of these stately ships 
of the desert. Arrived at our destination, Louis 
made all the arrangements with one of the two 
sheiks of the Pyramids, who selected our guides for 
us. They were not to annoy us about backsheesh, 
while away from Louis, and were to bring us back 

( ^35 ) 

on the same side and not take us down the other 
way. When all the promises had been made, with 
our skirts well tucked up we started, each with 
four attendants, one on each side and another to 
push, while the two extra ones weire employed, 
one in carrying my wrap and the other bearing a 
water bottle, or, rather, stone jar. The steps are 
by no means regular as I had always supposed, 
but are anywhere from one and a half to three 
feet high, while some are but narrow ledges and 
others are very wide. The uniform appearance of 
the pyramid from below would give one the im- 
pression that it could be mounted like a flight of 
stairs, but instead of that our path was very zig- 
zag indeed, the guides choosing the easiest steps, 
both for themselves and for us. Our men were 
exceedingly nice to us, giving us ample assistance 
and allowing us to rest as often as we pleased, 
thus disproving the statement that has been often 
made that the guides always insist upon going up 
very fast and pull one's arms almost out of the 
sockets, to say nothing of the detriment to the 
clothing. We were very warm and pretty tired 
when we reached the summit, in less than half an 
hour, but we rested there quite a long time, look- 
ing out on two deserts, with only a long strip 
of fertile land between. It was certainly a view 
which one seldom sees, and although not at all 
beautiful, nor even picturesque, was exceedingly 
interesting to us, and one we would not have 
missed for twice the fatigue. While we were at 
the summit one of the Arabs, who had joined our 

( 136 ) 
procession but was not one of our guides, begged 
us to allow him, for a small backsheesh, to run 
down Cheops, across the sand, and up Chephren, 
the next largest pyramid, and bring a bit of marble 
from the very top of it, and finally we consented. 
He did it in an incredibly short time, and when 
we reached the ground he was there before us to 
claim his reward. 

When we were at the hotel near the Pyramids 
the standing space at the top of Cheops seemed to 
be about a yard square, but it is in reality thirty- 
six feet. Before commencing the descent one of 
my guides unwound his turban cloth from his 
head and tied it about my waist. Kate had the 
same arrangement. Then two men went before 
and assisted me down the steps, v/hile the third 
held me firmly with his extemporized rope, and 
in a very few minutes we were again at the en- 
trance to the great mausoleum but still forty-eight 
feet from the ground. As we were doing the 
pyramid we concluded to go inside and visit 
the king's and queen's chambers too. The same 
guides, now with lighted candles, assisted us down 
a passage only a little more than three feet high, 
where the steps were only shallow, smooth hol- 
lows quite two feet apart, and where the sand and 
bats seemed much more at home than we did. 
After going down some distance we began to go 
up, and it was a tug of war, I can tell you ; but 
coming down was even harder, and in one place 
my guide took me in his arms and lifted me 
bodily. He had an armful for once, and I think 

( 137 ) 
he appreciated the fact, too. These passages have 
an odor that is like nothing I ever smelled 
before, and I can get along very well without 
experiencing it again. The air was close, and 
we were glad to get into the king's chamber 
where two air shafts made life a little more en- 
durable. Here is the huge granite sarcophagus 
which is supposed to have been Cheops' coffin. 
The walls are lined with great granite blocks, and 
now the bats are the only occupants. Of course 
we climbed into the sarcophagus, and as Kate's 
guide had said something to her about Mr. 
Cheops, we called ourselves Mrs. and Miss 
Cheops. On our way out we visited the queen's 
chamber, where a large sarcophagus once rested 
inside of one wall of the room, but as it had been 
removed to the museum there was nothing but 
the hole it had once occupied. When we emerged 
into daylight again we presented a very disheveled 
appearance, but Louis brushed us off and we let 
down our dresses, got into our carriage and drove 
over the few hundred yards to the fine hotel which 
was built a few years ago, and had lunch. After 
luncheon we wrapped up well to avoid taking cold, 
and came home, having had, as Miss Merriam 
would have said, " a wonderful day." The entire 
time from the beginning of the ascent until we 
came out from the interior was an hour and forty- 
five minutes. A gentleman who was there when 
we had finished said we were very brave. 

Last night we went for a drive by moonlight 
and saw an Egyptian Fair, which I will describe 

( 138 ) 

to Will in a day or two. We are going to have 
full moon on the Nile, and are anticipating the 
trip with much pleasure. I must try to write a 
few more letters to-day, but will deal only in gen- 
eralities, as I really have not time to go into de- 
tails excepting to my family. We have to study 
as well as see all these things, and letter-writing 
takes a great deal of time, so my friends must not 
expect to hear much from me excepting through 
you. Much love to you and Will, in which 
Alice and Kate join heartily. 
Your loving wife, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

On the Nile, February 2, 1893. 
My dear Father : 

During the past week I have seen and experi- 
enced so much of the wonders and antiquities 
of ancient Egypt that, had I time and a fluent 
tongue, I could not do the subject justice. 

The more one sees of Egypt, the more one is 
impressed with the intelligence, courage, and per- 
severance of the people who once ruled here, and 
amazed at the wonderful work they accomplished. 
One glance at the pyramids will give a person a 
better idea of the power of the nation than any 
amount of reading could do, as I realized espe- 
cially after climbing to the top of Cheops. At 
last I have actually accomplished what compara- 
tively few women undertake. Last Saturday Kate 
and I made the ascent of the great pyramid of 

( ^29 ) 

We left Cairo at ten o'clock in the morning, 
attended by our faithful dragoman, and had a 
charming drive of nine miles, some of the way 
by the side of the Nile, which we crossed on a 
very fine iron bridge ; then along an avenue 
arched and shaded by large acacia trees, until we 
reached the edge of the Libyan desert, and found 
ourselves at the foot of the mammoth mass of 

Louis made all the arrangements for our trip 
with the sheik of the pyramids, stipulating that 
we were not to be hurried, nor annoyed by de- 
mands for backsheesh, and that we were to go 
and come by the same route. After tucking up 
our skirts and discarding wraps, we were ready to 
start. I had four dusky Arabs clothed in white to 
attend me, — one on either side, one to push, and 
one to carry my cloak, which it was supposed I 
would need when the summit had been attained. 
The steps are by no means regular, as I had al- 
ways supposed, but are anywhere from one and 
a half to three feet high, some being mere ledges, 
and others very wide. 

The uniform appearance of the pyramid from 
below would give the impression that one could 
mount it like a flight of stairs, but instead of that 
our path was very zigzag — the guides choosing 
the easiest path, both for our sakes and their 
own. Our men were exceedingly nice to us, giv- 
ing ample assistance, and allowing us to rest as 
often as we pleased, — thus fairly earning the 
" good backsheesh " they implored us to give 

( HO ) 
them when they should have arrived safely at 
the bottom again. We were rather breathless 
when we reached the top, but by no means ex- 
hausted, having made the ascent in less than 
half an hour. 

Cheops is about 480 feet high, although differ- 
ent writers vary in their estimates. I am quite 
sure my figures are none too high, and every 
one who has climbed that vast monument will 
certainly agree with me. From the top, where 
the platform is thirty-six feet square, we had an 
extended view of two deserts, — the Arabian 
and the Libyan, separated only by a narrow strip 
of fertile land, which is a very oasis in the desert. 
It was a view which one seldom sees, and al- 
though not beautiful in one sense, was quite pic- 
turesque and exceedingly interesting ; also a view 
I would not have missed for twice the fatigue 

We rested nearly half an hour, then, before 
beginning the descent, one of my guides unwound 
the turban from his head and tied it about my 
waist. Kate's guide did the same for her, and 
in this way we made our way to the ground ; 
two men to assist us down from step to step, 
and the third to hold us firmly by his impro- 
vised rope. 

About forty-eight feet from the ground is the 
opening leading to the interior, and as soon as our 
guides had been provided with lighted candles, we 
entered a passage which descended at an angle of 
forty-five degrees and had only notches in the 

( HI ) 
rocks for steps. But for the firm support of the 
guides, whose bare feet dung to the stone and 
whose strong arms supported us, we could not 
have made this trip. 

After going down some distance we commenced 
going up in the same way, and finally, after much 
exertion, reached the kings* chamber, where lies 
the granite sarcophagus of which Henry M. 
Field speaks in his account of the visit he made 
to the interior of Cheops by night. Night and 
day are the same in that vast sepulchre, for the 
darkness is so dense it seems as if one could cut 
it with a knife. With the help of the Arabs, 
slipping and sliding, we came down from the 
kings' chamber, and then, bending to traverse a 
passage about three and a half feet high and four 
feet wide, we entered the Queens' chamber, which 
is now entirely empty, the sarcophagus which 
was formerly in a hole in the wall having been 
taken to the museum at Cairo. 

We presented rather a dusty and heated ap- 
pearance when we finally emerged into the bright 
sunlight again, but were very happy that we had 
explored the great pyramid both outside and 

From the top of the pyramid, Cairo seemed 
to be almost at our feet, for the atmosphere 
of Egypt is so clear that distances are very de- 

Cheops is the largest pyramid in Egypt and 
covers thirteen acres of ground. Its huge dimen- 
sions are better appreciated when one is standing 

( H^ ) 
on the ground at its base, although when looking 
down upon people from its summit they seemed 
like flies crawling along. 

We did not visit the Sphinx that day, nor ride 
on a camel, but have reserved something to do 
when we get back to Cairo. We felt sorry to 
leave that fascinating city, but expect to have 
a month there on our return from the Nile. 

Tuesday morning found us nicely settled on 
board " Rameses the Great." It is a large and 
very comfortable boat ; it has two decks, which 
are inclosed in canvas at night and lighted by 

There are a number of staterooms on the 
upper deck, but the space is mostly given up to 
the pleasant writing room, the dining salon, and 
the open-air parlor in the centre, which has 
handsome rugs, large easy chairs, tables, etc. 
We are on the lower deck, where all of*the 
rooms open on the outside, and when we sit in 
our camp chairs by our doors, it reminds one of 
the patriarchs of old, who sat at their tent doors 
and looked out across the desert. It is not al- 
ways desert, though, for along the narrow strip 
of land between river and desert there are many 
beautiful green spots and groves of palm-trees. 
I never realized how stately and beautiful the 
palms were until we started up the Nile. This 
is the home of the palm, and any other kind of 
tree seems quite out of place here. 

The Nile is a most tortuous stream, and often 
changes its shore line from day to day. This is 

( 143 ). 

why our boats lie still at night, as navigation is 
not easy, and without watchful care we might 
find ourselves on a sandbank at any time. 

Last night we anchored about dark in the 
middle of the stream, and the full moon rose, 
making the scene indescribably beautiful. Tues- 
day afternoon we made one of the excursions 
from the boat, which are of almost daily oc- 
currence, to see the ruins of ancient Memphis. 
A motley crowd of donkeys and donkey boys 
received us on the shore, and amidst much pull- 
ing this way and that, and shouting by the eager 
boys, almost the whole of our ship's company 
soon started on donkeys in a procession which 
was very ridiculous in appearance, and also very 
picturesque. I happened to be nearly at the end 
of the cavalcade, and was much interested and 
amused to see seventy-five people, disguised and 
disfigured by all sorts of horrors in the shape of 
sun-hats, winding along the embankment, which 
is the highway of the country, each with an at- 
tendant running along behind, alternately push- 
ing his poor little donkey, or belaboring him with 
a stick. 

My donkey was very amiable and easy, and 
so I had a very comfortable trip. We rode alto- 
gether about nine miles that afternoon, dismount- 
ing four or five times to view different monuments 
or mausoleums, and we were over four hours 
making the excursion. Yesterday we did no- 
thing in the way of sight seeing excepting from 
the deck of our steamer. 

( 144 ) 

The Nile varies from a quarter of a mile to 
a mile in width, and resembles in color and cur- 
rent the Mississippi. The shores are sometimes 
low and sometimes quite like the palisades of 
the Hudson, now green and fertile, with palm 
groves stretching along for miles, and then only 
sandy desert or sand hills are to be seen. 

The fertile country on either side of the Nile is 
but a narrow strip, and then there is the Arabian 
desert on the east, and the Libyan on the west. 

The scenery along the Nile is wonderfully 
fascinating in spite of these limitations. The 
river itself is full of life, with its numerous boats 
with butterfly-shaped sails scudding before the 
wind, filled with swarthy natives whose mantles 
float out with the breeze like small black flags, 
also brown sheep, and goats, donkeys, and even 
camels. Yesterday we saw them embarking some 
camels, and the poor beasts did not enjoy the 
prospect of a boat ride very much, judging from 
their motions. This afternoon we are lying at 
the dock of Beni Hassan, and about forty of our 
number have gone away on donkeys to see some 
more wonderful old tombs. None of our party 
went, as the trip promised to be a hard one, and 
there is a wind-storm going on which makes rid- 
ing over the sand most unpleasant. Besides, 
these ruins are not nearly as interesting as some 
we shall see later, so we are content to wait a 
few days. Yesterday was a beautiful day, warm 
and clear, while to-day is cloudy and cold as well 
as windy. 

( 145 ) 
We expect to be away from Cairo three weeks, 
and on our return there will finally decide about 
going to Palestine. There will be many days of 
riding on horseback if we take the trip we most 
desire to take, and it may seem too difficult to 

I am looking now for letters from home, and 
hope to hear very soon from you all. Love to 
all relatives and friends, and most of all to you. 
Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Steamer Rameses the Great. 
Sunday, February 5, 1893. 
My dear William : 

I wrote you on the first day of the month and 
gave you some of our experiences on the Nile. 
Since then the days have been golden, whether 
we sailed or rode donkeys, and every day we say 
" William must take this trip, for he would so 
enjoy the restful hours on the boat, when one 
needs do nothing excepting use one's eyes, and 
he would like the donkey riding ever so much." 
We always anchor for the night in the middle of 
the stream, as the river is so variable in its shores 
and currents that it is not safe to travel at night. 
The moon has been glorious and the sunsets 
more than beautiful. The days are sunny, gen- 
erally, although sometimes misty, and the air is 
often crisp and yet often soft and balmy. I can- 
not begin to tell you how much we are enjoying 
it, and how often we speak of your goodness in 
letting us have this charming trip. 

( 146 ) 

On Thursday at noon we arrived at Beni Has- 
san, and if you could only have been here to wit- 
ness the scene ! No tongue could describe it. 
Cook's boat wharf has stowed away in its hold a 
large number of saddles, which the natives are 
allowed to put on their donkeys, for the use of 
the passengers. When we arrived, there was wild 
excitement among the natives, who were fighting 
with each other for the possession of the precious 
saddles. At last some soldiers who are stationed 
at that place to keep the people in order, and some 
of our own people, took sticks and chased the 
crowd away. They retreated a short distance, with 
waving garments and bare legs very prominent, 
to return to the onslaught as soon as an oppor- 
tunity offered. It reminded one of a flock of 
crows being driven from a cornfield, and indeed 
was a most grotesque sight. 

After luncheon was over the sightseers sallied 
forth to inspect the tombs to be seen, but as a 
wind storm was in full action, and we knew how 
pleasant that was from past experience, we three 
decided to remain quietly on the boat. It was a 
short excursion, for the people were not gone very 
long, and an uninteresting one, too, I judge, from 
the silence that followed it, so we were not sorry 
to have missed it. Beni Hassan is the town which 
Mohammed Ali once caused to be destroyed, be- 
cause the people were such thievish rascals, and 
the guide-book says they are not much better 
now. I can well believe it, from seeing them, and 
some of the passengers had to fight their way back 

( H7 ) 
to the boat, because the donkey boys insisted on 
having more backsheesh than was their due, or the 
passengers willing to pay. We had a gorgeous 
yellow and red sunset that night, and just as its 
glow was dying out we arrived at Roda, the seat 
of a large sugar manufactory. There are a good 
many sugar refineries on the Nile, as sugar-cane 
is extensively grown, and forms the main part of 
the food for the country people. Quite a num- 
ber of our people went up to see the factory, but 
we were more interested in a group of Arabs on 
a boat near us, who were preparing supper on a 
pan of coals. After the food was ready they all 
sat around the pan on the floor, and each one 
"stuck in his thumb and pulled out a plum." 
It did not look very tempting to us, but they 
seemed to relish it. After supper one by one 
they climbed down to the rudder of the boat, 
and tucking up their garments and rolling up 
their sleeves performed their ablutions, washing 
faces, mouths, arms, hands, and feet. After letting 
down their garments, and wiping themselves on 
their skirts, they proceeded to replace the outside 
mantle over shoulders and heads, and then at- 
tended to their devotions. They all seemed to 
be very pious, but while some of them were pray- 
ing in a loud tone and kneeling devoutly others 
were grinning and begging us for backsheesh. 

Friday afternoon we reached Assiout, which 
used to be one of the most important towns on 
the Nile, when the caravans of Persia, laden with 
beautiful stuffs, used to stop there. It is a fine 

( 148 ) 

town now with a large population, has several 
consuls, and the American Presbyterians have 
extensive mission schools there. We found a 
number of steamers there and several daha- 
beahs all covered with flags, and one floated the 
American flag. The town was profusely deco- 
rated with red bunting, red flags, lanterns with 
candles, and colored designs for floating wicks. 
It was a very pretty sight, and all this gorgeous- 
ness was on the Khedive's account, who was to 
arrive on Friday night to open a railroad. We 
had a dance on board that night, and next morn- 
ing, Saturday, at 8.30, we mounted our donkeys 
and started off to see the caves in the Libyan 
hills, where the sacred wolf used to be buried. I 
enjoyed the ride much more than the tombs, 
which were mere holes in the mountains. My 
donkey cantered beautifully, my saddle was com- 
fortable, and I was actually sorry to get back to 
the ship. Some of our people were anxious to 
remain over and see the illuminations last night 
on the arrival of the Khedive, but the manage- 
ment decided it would be best to go on, so our 
time for leaving being twelve o'clock noon, yes- 
terday, we started punctually. Another steamer 
arrived from Cairo just before we left, and we had 
salutations from some Ems steamer friends who 
were on board. Mail was received at Assiut, or 
Assiout, but there was none for us, and we were 
very much disappointed. Alice had a letter from 
Louis Mansour, our dragoman, giving us his 
terms for the Palestine trip, and as they are lower 

( 149 ) 
than David JarnaFs, we will probably employ 
him. He has the best recommendations from 
Baedeker and people who have traveled under 
his care, and we like him very much as a guide. 

Since leaving Assiout yesterday at noon we 
have made good time, and have led a very lazy life, 
which suits us perfectly. The weather grows 
milder day by day, and the vegetation seems to 
be more verdant and beautiful the further we go. 
Native villages are frequent ; the palms are beau- 
tiful, the natives are as picturesque as ever, and 
wear even fewer garments, and the river is more 
and more enjoyable. Along the Nile they raise 
many pigeons for their manure, to put on the 
land, and many of the towns have more homes 
for the pigeons than for the people. For fuel 
they use the manure of the animals, dried. 

We had service this morning, and the minis- 
ter read suitable chapters about Moses and the 
Egyptians, which seemed very appropriate to the 
occasion. The people on the boat are mostly 
English and very pleasant, and we are very 
chummy with many of them, without knowing 
their names. There cannot be much formality 
on a donkey ride where everybody looks just as 
ridiculous as his neighbor. The ice melts very 
soon when one has to smile alike at everybody's 
appearance. Just now beautiful fields of wheat, 
with a background of olive trees, are on the west, 
while gray sand-hills are to be seen on the oppo- 
site shore with a foreground this time of palm 

Well, I must end my letter now. We will 
soon reach Dendera, but will not explore its sights 
till morning. I hear that breakfast is to be at 
seven, as we will need a good many hours to see 
all that is to be seen. Alice takes very kindly to 
donkey riding, and seems to enjoy it as much as 
any one here. We will be very busy now for 
several days, as we expect to reach Luxor to- 
morrow night and stay two days, looking at the 
temples, etc. Love to Will and yourself and all 
friends. We can get no letters for another week. 
We are almost out of the world, you see. 
Your loving wife, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

R AMESES THE Great, February 8, 1893. 
My dear William : 

I wrote you last on Sunday. That night we 
had a beautiful sunset, in fact we have one every 
evening; each one is different, and all of them 
remind me of our painting of Jerusalem. 

Monday early we reached Dendera. At 8.30 
we mounted our donkeys for the two miles' ride 
over to the temple. The temple of Dendera 
dates back to about the time of the Christian era, 
and Christ was living in Jerusalem when it was 
being built. The temple was dedicated to the 
worship of the goddess Hathor, daughter of Osiris 
and Isis, and she was the goddess of nature. It 
was nearly buried under the accumulated rubbish 
of centuries until Mariette undertook its exca- 
vation. There is a great deal of excavation to be 

( 151 ) 
done yet, but it is a wonderful structure as it 
rests now. It was built of stone, was of immense 
size, and had innumerable rooms. Each room 
had its name and use, and the hieroglyphics, 
which cover the walls, tell all about it. The 
twenty-four great columns in the portico are 
larger than those in the Parthenon, and are very 
imposing. The outside of the temple is also 
covered with carved figures representing gods and 
goddesses, kings and queens, and hieroglyphic 
signs, which tell the story of each one and the 
great things they did. The Egyptians were cer- 
tainly a wonderful people in those days and 
showed all honor to the gods they worshiped. 

Part of our way was through fields of wheat and 
peas. The peas are in blossom and look very 
pretty. Some of the children we saw wore no 
clothing at all, and some had a wreath of twisted 
grass about the waist and another on the head. 
One does not mind seeing these people with little 
or no clothing, for their skins are very dark, and 
they seem to be more like animals than human 

We left Dendera at noon and reached Luxor 
at six o'clock on Monday. Yesterday we visited 
the tombs of the kings on the west side of the 
river. As it was considered a very hard trip 
neither Alice nor Kate went, and I rather thought 
of staying on the boat too, but at the last mo- 
ment made up my mind to take in everything. 
We left at 8.30 in boats for the west shore and 
were carried to the bank by strong men, there 

( 152 ) 
being no other way to land. Two men came for 
me ; they made a chair of their hands and I put 
my arms around their necks, and presto, change ! 
I was on dry land with no trouble at all to my- 
self Some of the ladies were carried by one man, 
but no one offered to take me that way. The 
donkeys were waiting, and with the usual scramble 
and noise we mounted, only to go as far as an- 
other arm of the Nile, where we had to go in 
boats again. The donkeys were also transported 
in boats, and each boy claimed his own rider. Now 
we had a long ride of nearly an hour, winding in 
among great red limestone cliffs, whose craggy 
heights showed finely against the beautiful dark 
blue of the sky. The whole range of cliffs is full 
of tombs of the great men of Egypt. We first 
visited the tomb of Rameses IV., showing our 
monument tickets at the gate. We entered the 
hillside by a long gallery, gradually descending 
until we reached the room where the great granite 
sarcophagus still remains, but the stone slab (more 
like a great boulder) is broken. The walls are 
covered with figures and cartouches telling his his- 
tory, and are repeated over and over again. After 
seeing one of these tombs one has practically seen 
all of them unless a person is able to read the hie- 
roglyphics without an interpreter. To an Egyp- 
tologist they would all have great interest. Some 
of the tombs are comparatively easy of access, and 
others are difficult because of the steep grade in 
going down into them and the hard climb in com. 
ing out. We saw several tombs of the different 

( 153 ) 
Rameses, and one of Set! First, and then pro- 
ceeded to the entrance of another one where our 
lunch was ready. A very nice lunch it was, too. 
Cook has capital arrangements for the comfort of 
his passengers, and I would always prefer coming 
up the Nile in this way rather than have a daha- 
beah. After lunch those who wished to get a fine 
view of old Thebes from the top of the mountain 
climbed up, the donkeys following, and those who 
did not care to make so much exertion went back 
the same way in which they had come. Of course 
I was one to climb the hill, and when I got to the 
top the view of the valley of the Nile and the 
ruined temples of ancient Thebes repaid me for 
the hard work and heat. You must know that 
we are actually having summer weather now. It 
was a very warm excursion yesterday, but I en- 
joyed it ever so much. I had a fine donkey and 
cantered almost all of the way back to the land- 
ing. We were away nearly eight hours from the 
boat, and about all the rest we had was while 
sitting on a rock at the entrance of the tomb 
eating luncheon, but I was not even very tired, 
and have been off again to-day seeing the ruins 
at Karnak. 

The Karnak ruins cover about looo acres, al- 
though not half that space is worthy of a visit. 
They are the grandest relics of Egypt's ancient 
splendor that I have yet seen, and a great deal of 
the coloring is still perfect, although exposed to 
the weather. In one temple there are 134 mas- 
sive columns standing, which are magnificent. 

( 154 ) 
Mohammed, our dragoman, took six men as large 
as he is himself, and the seven men could just 
stretch around one of the great pillars. We have 
had only a faint idea of this wonderful place as yet, 
but mean to go there again on our way back. 
We are to see the temple of Luxor this after- 
noon, that is, Mohammed is going into it with 
us to explain it all. We have seen them ever since 
our arrival, as they are not a stone's throw from 
the steamer. I saw the columns shining out in 
the nioonlight on Monday night and it was a fine 

Monday evening a note was handed to me and 
who do you suppose has turned up in Egypt ? 
Mrs. Thayer. She is on the river now but on 
her way to Cairo, and expects to meet us there 
when we get back. 

Last night the Rameses arrived from Assuan, 
and on board were the Bells and our fair young 
lady friends, who were all on board the Ems. We 
were delighted to see each other again and were 
soon on their boat greeting them. In the even- 
ing they came over here and they all confessed 
that our boat is the finest and has the nicest offi- 
cers, and also a more genial, friendly set of peo- 
ple. They left at noon. To-morrow we are going 
to explore Thebes on the west shore, and 1 hope 
to be able to get the very same donkey again. 
My boy's name is Gossom and the donkey's is 
Seti First. The boys are all Mohammeds or Has- 
sans, usually, and the favorite names for the 
donkeys are Telegraph, Telephone, and Yankee 

( 155 ) 
Doodle Dandy. We saw some of the natives from 
near Sudan, and they really are nothing but sav- 
ages, who wear scanty clothing and arrange their 
long hair in a wondrous manner. They came 
and danced for us this morning to the music of 
a sort of reed flute. The dancing was merely 
springing about a foot from the ground and turn- 
ing with each spring. The only beautiful thing 
about them is their teeth, which are as white as 
snow, and as a rule very even. 

If you only knew how hard it is to write let- 
ters ! I feel so unable to tell of these wonderful 
sights that it discourages me from even attempt- 
ing it. The Bells got a lot of letters last night 
which left New York on the 15th, and why do we 
not receive anything? Now I must stop. If you 
get any idea from this dull letter of what we are 
enjoying I will be very glad. Tell Matie Fox that 
her box of candy was not opened until we started 
up the Nile, and we have blessed her many 
times for giving it to us. Love to all, as usual. 
Your loving wife, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Upper Egypt, February 12, 1893. 

My dear Father : 

To-day I had my first batch of home letters, 
and yours of January 9 was one of the five. We 
would have received them about a week sooner 
had we remained in Cairo. My last letter to you 
was written on the 2d, during the time when 
quite a number of our company were on land 

( 156) 

visiting some tombs at Beni Hassan. The same 
afternoon we sailed as far as Roda, where a large 
sugar manufactory was the attraction, and, an- 
choring in the middle of the stream, remained 
there until daylight the next morning. Friday 
afternoon we reached Assiut, one of the largest 
and most important towns on the Nile. They 
were making extensive preparations for the re- 
ception of the Khedive, who was expected next 
day, so the town was gay with innumerable red 
flags, arches, colored lanterns with candles, and 
colored glasses for floating, arranged in all sorts 
of odd Egyptian designs. It was really a very 
pretty sight, and our people were anxious to 
remain over a day to see the illuminations when 
his Highness should appear. The manager sent 
a message to Cairo to that efi^ect, but permis- 
sion to stop was not granted ; so after spend- 
ing Saturday morning in riding out to the hills 
to see the tombs where the sacred wolves used 
to be buried, and in visiting the bazaars of the 
town, we proceeded on our way. Sunday we had 
service in the dining-room, for we had a minister 
on board. Portions of Scripture were read telling 
of the desolation which was to come upon Egypt, 
suitable remarks were made, and the service was 
a very unusual and interesting one. As the days 
go by we are more and more delighted with our 
trip, with its new and varied experiences. We 
are getting very fond of donkey riding, and se- 
lect our beasts and saddles with as much care and 
interest as we bestow upon the famous old ruins. 

( 157 ) 
Not that we can always choose as we would, for 
the boys pull us this way and that, and push 
their donkeys forward in a way that does not al- 
ways accord with our ideas of politeness, all the 
time dinning into our ears the perfections of their 
own animals and shouting Arabic invectives 
against each other. 

After getting accustomed to that sort of thing 
one rather enjoys it, but at first we felt a trifle 
nervous, not knowing what might happen if we 
resisted their importunities. Now we make our 
way among the ludicrous looking rabble with 
great confidence, pushing both donkeys and 
boys out of our way when they become too noisy 
and troublesome. 

I never realized how much the river Nile is to 
Egypt until now. The people drink its water, 
they bathe in it, and in fact it is food and drink 
too, because without it there would be nothing 
to eat. The women come down at eventide to 
fill their jars just as they did in the days of the 
Israelites, and probably with the same kind of 
jars, which they fill and then carry away on their 
heads as easily as if they were mere featherweights. 
The shores of the river have been very inter- 
esting all the way, and offer more variety and 
beauty to the eye than one would think possible 
from the general lowness of the banks. When 
we are not off on some excursion, our life is so 
idle that we even lack ambition enough to write 
letters. It is an odd feeling of languor with which 

( 158 ) 
one becomes possessed whenever there is no 
special inducement to exert oneself. 

Last Monday afternoon we arrived at Luxor, 
the site of ancient Thebes, and there were so 
many ruins to see that we remained there three 

The first day we started at 8.30 in small 
boats, crossed the river to where donkeys were 
waiting, and rode across the plain to an arm of 
the Nile, where both people and donkeys were 
transported in boats. Then we had a ride of 
forty minutes, winding in and out among bold, 
rugged, red limestone cliifs, which were outlined 
against a deep blue cloudless sky, until finally 
we reached the mountain side, where many kingly 
tombs are to be found. Some of these tombs 
date back as far as 1600 b. c. and are wonder- 
fully well preserved. A long descending gallery, 
the walls covered with figures and hieroglyphics, 
leads into the hillside, and at the end of this pas- 
sage is found a room containing a huge granite 
sarcophagus where some mighty king of Egypt 
once reposed. Each tomb tells the history and 
great works of the king who was buried there, 
and when explained by our dragoman, Moham- 
med, proved to be a very interesting and enter- 
taining story. 

It was rather fatiguing work to explore these 
tombs, so after seeing five of them and walking 
miles, we paused for luncheon at the entrance to 
another tomb, where we found cold meats, bread 

( 159 ) 

and butter, hard boiled eggs, coiFee, and fruit, 
more satisfying to the inner man than cartouches 
and hieroglyphics. 

After lunch, those so disposed climbed to the 
top of the mountain for a view of the valley of 
the Nile, with the river following its serpentine 
course among the ancient ruins of once magnifi- 
cent temples. It was a beautiful vista which 
stretched out before us, and amply repaid us for 
the fatigue and heat we had endured in order to 
get it. Thebes lay on both sides of the river, and 
must have been a marvel of beauty. All these 
great temples were dedicated to the worship of 
Egyptian gods, and no expense or labor was 
spared to do them honor. 

The second day we again mounted on donkeys 
to visit the ruins of Karnak, on the east side of the 
river and not far from Luxor, where an anchor- 
age was made. The ruined temples of Karnak 
cover a thousand acres of land and are the finest 
in Egypt, but baffle description. One splendid 
granite obelisk stands 109 feet high, and in an- 
other place there are 134 immense stone columns 
which measure ^S ^^^^ i^ circumference and are 
beautifully proportioned. 

The ruins at Luxor are also very fine, and are 
being excavated more and more all the time, 
while new wonders of ancient Thebes are con- 
tinually coming to light. 

We left Luxor early last Friday morning and 
visited two ruins during that day, one on foot 

( i6o ) 

and the other with donkeys, arriving here yester- 
day about four o'clock. We saw the sights before 
night, as we would have no other opportunity. 
Our boat goes no further than Assouan, as the 
river is too narrow, too shallow, and too rocky 
for a steamer to venture beyond this point. To- 
morrow we go six miles further to reach the first 
cataract and Philae, and for the journey employ 
donkey, camel, or train as we wish, and return 
here to-morrow night to be ready to start on our 
return trip to Cairo next Tuesday. 

I feel almost sorry to be near the end of this 
ideal mode of travel, but all good things must 
come to an end, and so must this. However, the 
memory of these pleasant days will always remain 
with me, and besides I will have my journal, my 
photographs, and my pressed flowers to assist me 
in going up the Nile many years to come. Now 
that my first letters have arrived I am greedy 
for more, and shall watch the delivery of the 
mail at Luxor on Tuesday evening with special 

So my plans for a winter in Egypt rather sur- 
prised my friends in Aylmer. Well, I ought to 
be satisfied, for that was what I tried to do, 
and success is very gratifying. Loving mes- 
sages to one and all, and the greatest share for 
your dear self. 

Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

( i6i ) 

Rameses the Great, Nile, 
February 14, 1893. 

My dear William : 

When Alice came to my room on Sunday 
morning and asked me what I would rather have 
than anything else in the world, I answered with- 
out a moment's hesitation, " Letters," and she 
handed me five. No wonder I was anxious to 
hear from you, when not a word nor a sign had 
been received from you since our parting in New 
York ! Yours and Will's of the nth reached me 
on the 1 2th of the following month, but we would 
have had our mail earlier had we remained in 

Since writing Will on the nth we have had a 
charming time. We reached Assuan on Satur- 
day afternoon at four o'clock. We found it a 
very pretty little place, picturesquely situated, 
just opposite the famous Isle of Elephantine. 
The coast about here (and the river, too) is very 
rocky and barren, nothing but rocks and desert, 
and this is where that noted granite quarry is 
which provided so much and such beautiful gran- 
ite for temples and obelisks. Whenever you ask, 
" Where did they get this granite ? " the answer 
always is, " From the granite quarries of Assuan." 
I have secured a sample of it, for a paper weight 
for you. Many of our people went over to visit 
the island as soon as we had arrived here, but we 
made a visit to the bazaars, which are quite curi- 
ous, and I bought a riding whip for Will and a 
double war-knife such as they use in the Sudan. 

( i62 ) 

Sunday we spent rather quietly. Had services 
in the morning, and in the afternoon a small party 
of us went on donkeys to see the quarries. It 
really was a wonderful sight, for the granite seems 
to be inexhaustible. There is an unfinished obe- 
lisk lying on the ground, both top and bottom 
imbedded in sand, and yet what one can see is 
over seventy feet long and finely proportioned. 
After we came back from the quarries we got 
Joseph, our Syrian dragoman, to arrange for a sail- 
boat, and we went around the island. Mrs. and 
Miss Cochrane from New York were invited to 
go with us, and it was a perfectly delightful trip. 
The natives chant as they work, for they do not 
seem to be able to do anything without making 
a noise of some kind, and after we had rounded 
the lower part of the island the sail was let out 
and we scudded before the wind in fine style. 
When the sail needed reefing two men in gowns 
climbed the mast like squirrels, and while the 
boat turned about and these sailors were swing- 
ing out over the water they tied the sail down as 
neatly as possible and ran down to the deck as 
unconcernedly as if they had done nothing to 
astonish any one. Their toes are as supple as 
fingers, and they seem like a second pair of hands 
to the people who have never known what it is 
to wear a shoe. 

Monday morning some of our party rode don- 
keys, and a young Scotchman by the name of 
Gardner rode a camel over the six miles to Philae, 
which is a mile above the " First Cataract.'* We 

( i63 ) 
went by a train which reminded us very forcibly 
of Sicily in its make-up and speed, or lack of it. 
It took the train half an hour to reach the land- 
ing, where we had to take boats to go over to the 
beautiful island of Philae. The scenery all about 
there is wonderfully picturesque and very rocky. 
The rocks are piled upon each other as if by hu- 
man design, and are of granite, basalt, and other 
varieties. The ruins are very fine, indeed, and 
occupy a great part of the island, which is as small 
or smaller than Elephantine. On one wall is 
a copy of the Rosetta stone, on another great 
tablet is recorded the deed of gift, bestowed upon 
Isia by Ptolemy, of this temple, and the columns 
and capitals are beautiful. We lunched in one 
of the temples and desecrated it by the clatter 
of dishes and merry chat and laughter, but those 
once priestly chambers must long ago have become 
accustomed to the presence of these sights and 
sounds. After lunch we got into the boats and 
rowed down to the First Cataract, where we landed 
and climbed up the sand-hill of the Arabian De- 
sert to look down upon the rapids, and the Nu- 
bians sitting on logs with only a cloth about the 
loins, who were shooting them. It was wonder- 
ful how those black fellows guided their logs, sit- 
ting upright with feet straight out before them 
and paddling with their hands. After reaching 
a certain point they all made for the rocks and 
came up, breathless and dripping, to demand back- 
sheesh, as if we had asked them to risk their lives; 
and yet we gave them money and they were 
never satisfied. 

( i64) 

We came back to Assuan by boat, shooting 
the small rapids ourselves, and it was exciting 
I can tell you. The current was swift and the 
river full of eddies, which twisted our boat about 
like a cork, but the man at the rudder knew 
his business, while the eight oarsmen did their 
work well, and when we were through the danger- 
ous part they gave a hip-hip-hurrah as heartily as 
American seamen could have done it. We joined 
in it too. While we were shooting the rapids I 
dipped in a glass and filled it and then poured 
some of it into a small bottle I had carried with 
me for the purpose. 

Some of our people left us yesterday to go 
on to the Second Cataract, and they will see the 
most wonderful temple of all, hewn out of the 
solid rock. They say it is rather dangerous to 
go up there just now, as the dervishes are very 
troublesome, and visitors have to be protected 
by a company of English soldiers. Any way, we 
have not the time to spare for that trip, as it takes 
eight days longer. The river all the way back to 
Assuan was quite narrow and very rocky. The 
whole country looked barren and lonely, and we 
think we like better the vegetation which is be- 
coming more and more beautiful as the days go 
by, and as we are going towards Cairo. 

It is now about three p. m., and we expect to 
be back at Luxor at six o'clock, perhaps sooner. 
The weather is not hot, but clear and beautiful. 
The mornings and evenings are very cool, so that 
we still wear all our winter clothing and find it 

( i65 ) 

very comfortable. We will reach Cairo Sunday, 
probably, as we go down much quicker than we 
went up because of being with the current now and 
not having much sight-seeing to do. After we 
leave Luxor to-morrow at noon we will make 
only one stop, at Abydos. The ride on donkeys 
will take two hours each way and will try our 
mettle somewhat, I suspect. Our company are all 
exceedingly pleasant people, and we have very 
good times together. Some of them we will be 
sorry to lose, and some of them we hope to meet 
again in America. I was taken for an English- 
woman by an American ; was it a compliment or 
not ? Several Scotch families we like very much 
indeed. We have no pushing or crowding any- 
where excepting that which is caused by our 
donkeys and donkey boys. I dare say many wise 
things will occur to me to say as soon as my letter 
is sealed, but nothing seems to be in my mind 
now ; so with much love to you and all the fam- 
ily, wherever and whoever you are, and hoping 
to get more letters on our arrival at Luxor, 
Your loving wife, 

Lizzie McMillan. 
You may consider this a valentine if you like. 

Rameses the Great, 

February 17, 1893. 
My dear William : 

Continued from my last of Tuesday, 14th. We 
had a delightful sail all that day, as the weather 
was perfect, and reached Luxor about five o'clock 

( i66 ) 

in the afternoon. Alice and I went up town to 
buy some photographs, and became so much in- 
terested in our work that when we started for the 
boat it was quite dark. However, a native had 
been on the watch for us and accompanied us 
home with a lantern and never so much as said, 
" By your permission." He expected backsheesh, 
too, and of course got it, for the roads are not as- 
phalt, and we were glad to have our way illumi- 
nated. Our boat and another of Cook's looked 
very attractive from the shore, and I don't won- 
der that the company consider it safer at certain 
points to anchor in the middle of the stream. 
When I got to my room I found such a package 
of letters, including yours and Will's of the i6th 
and I yth ! We had a perfect feast in reading them, 
but were so sorry to hear you had taken cold on 
the way home. I was afraid you might have some 
trouble, after hearing of the very severe weather 
America had after we left. 

Wednesday morning some of the people went 
to see the ruins of Karnak again. We did not 
care to go there as it is a very dusty road, but 
Kate and I went for a donkey ride, with Joseph 
to see that we came to no harm. We enjoyed it 
ever so much. At noon we left Luxor, and about 
four o'clock arrived at Keneh, where they said 
we would see a fine pottery manufactory. The 
establishment turned out to be a courtyard in the 
town, with one man moulding common clay into 
water bottles and jars. After turning out half 
a dozen the hat was passed around for backsheesh. 

( i67 ) 
If there is one thing in this country which they 
know how to do thoroughly it is to pass the hat, 
whether in a small boat or on shore, it does n't 
matter. They are satisfied with such small sums, 
though, that we are quite willing to gratify the 
poor creatures. 

Before leaving Cairo we changed some gold 
into the coin of the country, piastres and half 
piastres, — in other words, ^ve and two and a 
half cent pieces, and have been prepared for all 
demands for money. 

To return to Keneh. After examining the pot- 
tery works we rode through the bazaars, but the 
streets were very narrow and dirty, and the wares 
were not at all tempting, although rather curious. 
The best part of that trip was the donkey ride, 
and that was fine. That night we sailed until 
dark and then anchored in the middle of the river 
opposite a small town, and early yesterday morn- 
ing were on our way again to reach Abydos in time 
to make that excursion comfortably during the 
day. At 10.30 we were off for a ride of an hour 
and three quarters to see the fine old temple of 
Abydos. A camel was laden with two enormous 
hampers containing our lunch, half a dozen wait- 
ers accompanied the procession, and there were 
nearly sixty pilgrims in hideous disguises who 
filed away from the ship. I do wish you could 
see one of these straggling processions. I thought 
when we first started on this trip that never was 
anything so grotesque, and yet habit is such a queer 
thing that I am not sure but that a well-ordered 

( i68 ) 

equipment — riding habit, hat, and fine horse — 
would now look strange and incongruous to me. I 
had a large donkey, the largest I have ever had, 
and felt very fine indeed. Everything went well 
until we had nearly reached our destination, when, 
without the least bit of warning, the beast went 
down on his nose and I went over his head. My 
head struck the ground, but on being picked up 
and dusted I found there was no harm done. I 
got on again and proceeded to the temple, but 
had a different donkey coming home. This time 
I chose a small one so that if he fell I would not 
have so far to go before reaching the ground. 
The temple of Abydos is not so fine in its 
general construction as some we have seen, and 
the pillars, although quite numerous, are not 
nearly so large as many others, both at Luxor 
and Karnak, but the carvings on the walls are the 
finest of all. The work is beautifully done, and 
much of it is in a fine state of preservation. Of 
course the temple was dedicated to the gods, and 
Isis and Osiris were prominent in all the carv- 
ings. The coloring on some of the designs was 
very bright, and this temple must have been a 
magnificent edifice several thousand years ago. 
The plain through which we rode was fertile 
and almost covered with beautiful green fields of 
wheat, and they grow a good many mandarin 
trees here. The weather is growing cooler as we 
approach Cairo. The mornings and evenings are 
actually cold, but it is warm and delightful in 
the middle of the day. 

( i69 ) 

We have some new people who came on board 
at Luxor. One distinguished-looking man sits 
next to Kate and opposite me at table. We 
were curious to know something about him be- 
cause he speaks English, Italian, and French 
equally well. It turns out that he is a count, 
lives in Rome, and had an English grandmother. 
You see we are a very distinguished party, having 
a prince, a count, a countess, and quite a num- 
ber of good American citizens on our boat. A 
gentleman who sits next me, and who came on at 
Luxor, said he hoped I would tell him if I were 
a countess, and I said I could tell him in one 
little word of two letters, but that I was proud of 
being a plain American citizen. He is English. 

This p. M. we will arrive at Assiout, and while 
some will be tempted to explore the town and 
bazaars, I have it on my mind to remain quietly 
on the boat. 

Among the very nicest of our ship's company 
is a Mr. Manger, a widower and a very cultivated 
man, who has made himself so pleasant to every- 
body that there was general grief when he fell, 
about ten days ago, and slightly sprained an 
ankle. Before that was well enough for him to 
resume his sight-seeing, excepting by going in a 
chair carried with poles by men, he fell again and 
had some trouble with his head. He has been in 
bed for some days, but is about now, and is quite 
the belle of the boat. This morning several of us 
were sitting near him, when he began to tell about 
his trip to Jerusalem, which was so interesting 

( lyo ) 

that it has greatly increased our desire to go there. 
He heard of my tumble yesterday, and was quite 
exercised about it, and being somewhat of a doc- 
tor, was making earnest inquiries as to my condi- 
tion this morning. I assured him that no bones 
were broken, not even my head. I begin to think 
this cranium of mine must be as hard as that of 
the native African. 

Cook's have their own saddles at all these 
temple towns, and they also carry with them 
about six chairs, so that people who cannot ride 
the donkeys may be carried. For the first time, 
Alice took a chair yesterday, and went to see the 
temple, like a queen, carried on men's shoulders. 
She enjoyed it ever so much, and amused herself 
during the journey by teaching her bearers Eng- 
lish. She said they were very quick to learn, and 
seemed as pleased as children with a new toy. It 
is very amusing to see the ridiculous toys, etc., 
which the children along the route to the, temples 
try to sell us. Home-made jumping-jacks, tops, 
slings, and rag dolls. There are always one or 
two little tots about three years old, totally naked, 
who are black and plump and cute, and are 
pushed forward to beg for backsheesh. Yesterday 
one little fellow got hold of the sleeve of our 
Scotch minister, Mr. Gillan, and came over the 
gang-plank with him. The funniest thing about 
it was that Mr. Gillan did not know the imp was 
there, and everybody was so much amused. I 
wish I could have you see these things as they 
appear to us, but no tongue could tell you, and 

( lyi ) 

no picture portray to you, this strange, desolate, 
fertile, beautiful, and most interesting country. 

Alice and Kate send much love, and are going 
to write you such long and interesting letters 
that you will forget how long it is since you 
have heard from them. I hope you are well and 
having a lovely time. Much love to all the fam- 
ily, whoever are with you and wherever you are. 
Lovingly your wife, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

We expect to reach Cairo on Sunday afternoon, 
and will probably remain on the boat until Mon- 
day morning, as we are entitled to our accommo- 
dations here until that time. I am actually sorry 
that the Nile trip is so nearly over, and find it is 
the general feeling among the passengers. 

New Hotel, Cairo, 

February 21, 1893. 
My dear William : 

We arrived here on Sunday afternoon, and yes- 
terday morning we received a nice batch of letters 
from home, yours of the 24th, and WilFs and 
yours of the 26th. I was so sorry to hear that 
neither you nor Will is well, and think perhaps 
it would have been better if I had remained at 
home, and then you would not have had that 
long journey from New York, in such freezing 
weather. I am thinking of you now as breathing 
the soft air of New Mexico, and gaining health 
and strength every day and hour. Still better 
would it have been to have had you both here in 

( 172 ) 
Egypt with us, although I dare say the three 
ladies in your party are as good nurses as we 
three are. I think your party very complete, and 
I hope and believe that you are all having the 
best kind of a time. 

I wrote you last on the 17th, just before we 
arrived at Assiout on our return journey. We 
got in about three o'clock, and most of the party 
immediately secured donkeys and went off to ex- 
plore the town. We did not care to do that 
again, so we waited until about five, and then 
got Joseph the Second, dragoman, to get don- 
keys for us and go with us, and we took a ride 
through the town and bazaars and almost out as 
far as the tombs of the sacred wolves. It was a 
delightful time to be out, when the sun was just 
sinking behind the hills, and giving a most mag- 
nificent coloring to the western sky and the east- 
ern sand-hills, and do you wonder that we enjoyed 
it ? I had a fine donkey, and quite reestablished 
my reputation as a rider. I did not want to have 
my last donkey ride an unpleasant remembrance, 
and this one quite banished the memory of my 
tumble. Our friends seemed to think I was 
rather brave to venture again, but it did not strike 
me in that way at all. 

Our boat remained at Assiout all night, and 
before evening another of Cook's boats came in 
from Cairo. We were in the saloon playing be- 
zique in the evening when the door opened and 
a lady came towards us smiling broadly. We all 
looked at her a moment, and then Kate and Alice 

( 173 ) 
exclaimed : " Sarah Dart ! where in the world did 
you drop from ? " and here was an old Buffalo 
friend of theirs. Perhaps you may remember 
meeting her at the Masconomo House the last 
time we were there. We had a very pleasant little 
visit together, and next morning at daybreak we 
were on our way again. We only made one stop 
on Saturday and that was where we spent the 
night. There was a sugar manufactory to see, but 
we did not go. Sunday was a beautiful day and 
we could not bear to leave the deck a moment 
for fear of losing some of the fascinating scenes, 
and actually grudging the time we had to spend 
at meals. Everybody mourned to think the jour- 
ney was so nearly over and wanted to enjoy it all 
as long as possible. Early in the afternoon the 
pyramids of Sakkarah appeared, and then signs 
of the city. Citadel Hill, with the beautiful ala- 
baster mosque, loomed up, and its tall, slender 
minarets were outlined against the blue sky. The 
gong sounded, and all the company assembled for 
afternoon tea and cakes before we would separate, 
perhaps forever. Then the boat whistled, and 
in a few minutes we were at our dock, and the 
familiar face of Louis was seen on the bank, look- 
ing for us. We knew that Cairo was very full, and 
thought we might all be obliged to remain on the 
boat until Monday morning, but the agent of the 
" New " was there and told us we could get rooms, 
so Louis came down and got our small traps, 
and in a few minutes we were whirling along the 
streets of Cairo, which seemed quite famihar to us. 

( 174) 
About half of our people remained on the boat, 
some for their own convenience and others be- 
cause they could not get rooms. We know so 
many people now that we could visit all day long 
if we wished. Quite a number of the Ems people 
are still here, and then the passengers of Ra- 
meses the Great keep running against us at every 
turn. Yesterday morning we had an appointment 
with Louis to make our final arrangements for 
the Palestine trip. We decided to go with him 
instead of David, and so he brought over his va- 
rious contracts, and after selecting the one which 
suited our own conditions, Alice and I made two 
copies of it, and then we went to the American 
consul to have them signed and sealed. One 
copy was given to Louis and I have the other. 
It is a very legal looking document and inspires 
us with almost as much respect for ourselves as 
if it were a deed of large property. Afterwards 
we went to the bank and drew enough money to 
pay a third of the whole sum to Louis according 
to the terms of the contract. We are to leave here 
March 19th, and from Jaffa, which we will reach 
in twenty-four hours, our real trip through Pales- 
tine will begin. We are anticipating great plea- 
sure from it, and hope that everything will turn 
out as pleasantly as we now expect it will. 

We called on Mrs. Thayer yesterday at Shep- 
heard's, but she was not in, so we have not seen 
her yet. Yesterday afternoon, after coming home 
from the bank, we sat down on the great veranda 
of this hotel, to read and discuss our letters and 

( 175) 
to have afternoon tea (which is served free at this 
house, but is extra at Shepheard's, and they give 
us cake and hot buttered toast, too), when Mr. 
Little, the American consul, came up and joined 
us. He seemed to enjoy his tea as much as we 
did. He is from Kansas, and has often been in 
St. Louis, so said he was delighted to meet such 
near neighbors as St. Louis people. He has 
been here about a month, and we are the first St. 
Louisans he has seen. He is quite young, and 
has no airs, as yet, but may acquire them after a 
while, as he is much sought by all the Americans 

We fully expected to find Mr. and Mrs. Harry 
Newberry here, on our return, but learn that 
Mrs. Dudgeon had a message to go to Constan- 
tinople instead, and left Cairo last Friday. I am 
afraid Mrs. Newberry must be in a dangerous 
condition, and am so sorry for Mrs. Dudgeon. 
She has been so brave and cheerful all the time, 
and was the admiration of all on the ship, for her 
courage. We learned to love her very much in- 

Now what do you suppose we are planning to 
do for the next few weeks ? and it is to be de- 
cided to-day. Take an apartment and keep 
house, if you please, and we are hoping that the 
Misses Coe, Choate, and Merriam will join us, 
if we do. At one o*clock we are to go with Louis 
to look at the rooms, and if we like them and the 
terms are satisfactory, presto, change ! we will be 
independent once more. We can live in that way 

( 176) 

for at least a third less than we pay at hotels, and 
be much more comfortable and have quiet. 

Last evening we had at least a dozen callers, 
among our ship companions, and never got away 
from them until half past eleven. Then of course 
it was too late to write any letters, and I had to 
go to bed with at least a dozen people on my 
mind. Hattie Sawyer wrote me such a charming 
letter before she knew she was going with you. 
Thank her for it, and tell her she is a lady to 
suggest that she can do all the letter-writing. She 
has been over hiere, and can understand how hard 
it is to keep up a large correspondence. I have 
not been able to answer the letters I have received 
since leaving home, to say nothing of writing to 
those who have not sent me a line either of fare- 
well or welcome to Egypt. Now please give lots 
of love from all of us to all of your party. I am 
sure Will and Martin will have a good time. 
Perhaps Will would like to have the donkey whip 
I got at Assuan for him, but he will have to 

You must have received our letters from Gi- 
braltar by the 27th or 28th. They were mailed 
on the 1 2th, and that would give them about two 
weeks to reach you. 

Hoping to hear good news of your health and 
happiness in a few days, with oceans of love for 
you and Will, 

Your loving wife, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

( 177 ) 

CoNTERET, Cairo, 

February 26, 1893, 
My dear Father : 

It is hard to realize that a week ago we had 
not yet finished our journey on the Nile, for we 
have had so many new experiences since then that 
the time seems much longer. 

Perhaps I mentioned in my last that we had 
drawn up our contract for the Palestine trip with 
Louis Mansour, dragoman, and then went to the 
American consul to have it signed and sealed. 
Since then we have added two ladies to our party, 
and as far as we are concerned, our arrangements 
for thirty days in the Holy Land are complete. 
Louis will attend to all other details, and all we 
will have to do will be to commit ourselves to 
his care when the time comes, and that time will 
be March i8th. A friend has described Louis in 
these words, which ought to give one a very good 
idea of his merits : " A Syrian by birth, a Chris- 
tian by faith, a gentleman by nature, a dragoman 
by profession, and a circus all the time." 

At the beginning of the week we conceived the 
brilliant idea of going to housekeeping in Cairo, 
and thus escaping from the noise and bustle of a 
great hotel. We interviewed Louis on the sub- 
ject, who said our plan was feasible, and in a few 
hours he came for us to go and look at some 
rooms. At the hotel were four young ladies, who 
came over on the Ems with us, and with whom 
we had become very well acquainted. They were 
charmed with the idea of keeping house, and 

( 178 ) 

agreed to join us if we could find suitable quar- 
ters. Well, the result was, that on Wednesday- 
last we took possession of our apartment, and are 
enjoying our home life very much indeed. We 
are seven, and a very congenial, merry party, and 
have quite a number of friends in Cairo who 
come often to see us and take afternoon tea with 
us. We have four bedrooms and a salon, which 
serves as a dining-room as well as a parlor, and 
we are just as cosy as can be, and are actually 
dreading the time when we must break up this 
pleasant arrangement and move on. 

The weather is perfect now, and the tempera- 
ture is just right, neither too hot nor too cold. 
We are just opposite Shepheard's hotel, so are 
right in the midst of all that goes on without 
having to mingle in it unless we so desire. Our 
meals are very good indeed, and are served by the 
people of the house without any trouble to our- 
selves, and that is, you must confess, an ideal way 
of keeping house. 

Some of us called yesterday on the ladies of the 
American Mission in Cairo. The mission school 
is very near us, and we were quite anxious to know 
something about the work among the natives. In 
this school there are over three hundred boys, 
and between one and two hundred girls. A good 
many of the students are Mohammedans, and 
one of the conditions of entering the school is 
that each child shall learn to read the Bible. In 
that way the seed is sown, and in due time brings 
forth fruit. Now there are sixteen churches in 

( 179 ) 
Egypt, which have sprung from the labors of the 
American Mission, and most of these churches 
have native preachers. This evening we are go- 
ing over to the service at the Mission, and per- 
haps next Sunday morning we will go to hear the 
Arabic service at nine o'clock. It does not sound 
much like Sunday outside, as, the Arabic Sunday 
being on our Friday, business goes on as usual 
to-day. I never saw a people who found it so 
necessary to keep up a continual noise as do the 
Arabs. They are never still a moment unless 
asleep, and are either shouting at each other, or 
else making some other kind of noise; so you 
can imagine the clatter when the streets are filled 
with native people. I have bought some small 
photographs of scenes constantly before us, and 
will inclose a few of them in each letter, in order 
to give you a somewhat better notion of things 
which I have vainly tried to describe. In a few 
days I hope to have had the novel experience of 
riding on a camel's back. I have already become 
quite familiar with donkey riding, and have en- 
joyed it very much, but decline to become any 
better acquainted with the buffalo. 

Since we have no more temples and tombs to 
see, I feel rather at a loss for material to make a 
good letter; however, you must take this with 
the love it carries along with it, and believe me 
as ever, 

Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

( i8o ) 

Cairo, Egypt, March 5, 1893. 
My dear Father : 

Yours of February 8th reached me March 2d, 
so you see that news may become rather old to 
you before it even gets to me. I was glad to hear 
that you were well and happy on your eightieth 
birthday, and by this time you have received my 
letter containing congratulations and good wishes 
for that occasion. 

I had a letter from William yesterday written 
from Eddy, February 7th, in which he was very 
enthusiastic over the house, and the complete sat- 
isfaction which my furnishing of it has given him. 
His letter was three days longer on the road than 
yours, so if I wanted to know something in a 
hurry, a letter would scarcely answer the purpose. 

Our housekeeping in Cairo prospers finely, and 
we have many friends coming to see us every after- 
noon. Fortunately, most of our sight-seeing was 
finished before we went up the Nile, so we have 
had time to devote to social duties. Now, how- 
ever, most of our friends have gone away, or are 
going very soon, so we will not be so busy during 
the remainder of our stay in Cairo. 

Last Tuesday we made an excursion to the 
Pyramids ; Louis went with us and attended to 
all the details for us. It is quite necessary, in 
dealing with the Arabs, to have a dragoman 
who understands their language and tricky ways. 
On our arrival we arranged to have our pic- 
tures taken on camel back, and by the time 
that business was settled we were surrounded 

( i8i ) 

by camels and Arabs. We did not feel ex- 
actly comfortable, to find those huge ships of 
the desert looking down upon us whichever way 
we turned, although assured by their keepers 
that they would not harm us ; but our sensa- 
tions then were nothing to what they were 
when we gave ourselves up to the untried ex- 
perience of riding them. With many an indig- 
nant grunt the camels were made to lie down, and 
one by one we were seated on the saddle ; then 
came the tug of war for us. I will speak for my- 
self and am sure of expressing the sentiments of 
all our party in so doing. My camel rose to his 
knees while I leaned forward ; then his hind- 
quarters began to go up and I had to lean back- 
ward as far as possible to keep from going over 
his head. After a space of time, which seemed 
very long to me, he condescended to stand on all 
four feet, and there I sat, it seemed to me half 
way between earth and sky, feeling terribly inse- 
cure. But in a little while I gained confidence, 
and instead of feeling that my very life depended 
on clinging to the two horns, fore and aft, I used 
the stirrups as a support, and raised my umbrella 
to protect me from the blazing sun. After we 
were all in our saddles the procession moved 
through the sand down towards the hollow where 
the Sphinx has guarded the desert for so many 
thousand years. There we halted to allow the pho- 
tographer to pose us for our pictures. The group 
certainly looked very picturesque as we stood 
there, and I hope a good impression has been 

( i82 ) 

taken. We have not yet seen the proof. We were 
not particularly impressed by the Sphinx then, for 
the sun was very bright and showed off the deface- 
ment of the features too much ; but in the even- 
ing we visited the place by moonlight and were 
enchanted by the whole scene. The massive face 
looked calm and thoughtful in the moonlight as 
it looked out beyond us over the desert, while 
the size of the figure seemed infinitely grander 
and more magnificent by night than by day. The 
Pyramids, too, seemed to almost reach the sky as 
we looked up at their mammoth proportions in 
passing, and the undulating curves of the sand- 
hills were full of lights and shadows. We found 
it hard to tear ourselves away from such a won- 
derfully fascinating spot, but at last our faces were 
turned Cairo-wards, which we reached not long 
before midnight. 

Friday night we had another excursion by 
moonlight up to the citadel to see the Alabaster 
Mosque illuminated on the occasion of some kind 
of Mohammedan festival. The mosque was filled 
with little starlike lights from candles and float- 
ing oil wicks in various designs, and the effect 
was beautiful although not brilliant. Howling 
and dancing dervishes were performing their re- 
ligious exercises with many violent contortions of 
the body and head, and some of them entered 
into the business with so much fervor that others 
were obliged to hold them when the time arrived 
for a change in the programme. Such hideous 
looking creatures as some of them were, and the 

( i83 ) 
holier the dervish the more hideous he was, and 
dirty also. As we came away the lights were being 
extinguished in a very novel manner. A man 
went about with a long-handled stick with a curved 
metal end, and inserting the curved end into a 
glass globe, blew into the other end, when, presto, 
change ! out went the light. It seemed a very 
simple way and saved the necessity of going 
around with a ladder. 

The view of Cairo from the citadel was beau- 
tiful by moonlight, and we came through some 
of the quaint, narrow old streets on our way 
home, which were much more picturesque and at- 
tractive by moonlight than by daylight. All the 
disagreeable features of these streets were more 
shrouded in mystery w^hen not seen by the light of 
the noonday sun, and it was a very pleasant change. 

We are all at home this morning, as no one 
went to the Arabic service at the American Mis- 
sion, and the English service is not until six 
o'clock this evening. Two weeks from to-day 
we will probably be in Jaffa. Give my love to 
the family and all inquiring friends and relatives, 
with much love for your dear self. 
Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Cairo, March 12, 1893. 

My dear Father : 

Yours of February 14th arrived here on the 
loth, and I was glad to learn that my letter from 
Alexandria had at last reached you. 

( i84) 
Since writing to you a week ago to-day we 
have not done anything very extraordinary and 
have not been rushing about sight-seeing, and yet 
every moment has been pleasantly occupied. One 
day we spent at the museum where all the relics 
and mummies found in the temples and tombs 
along the Nile have been placed, and we found 
it most interesting. Of course we could merely 
glance at each room in passing, for it would take 
months to study everything thoroughly. The 
mummies were perhaps the most curious of all, 
and it was hard to realize that these ghastly 
figures swathed in discolored rags could ever have 
been haughty kings or beautiful queens. Some 
of the faces were hideous, while others still pre- 
served a dignified bearing in spite of the ravages 
of time. This week there have been quite an 
unusual number of processions ; companies of 
English soldiers have marched by with the band 
playing national songs, and soon followed by a 
gay wedding procession. Sometimes the bride 
rides in a palanquin swung between the camels, 
one in front and one behind, and all covered with 
the most gorgeous trappings. Sometimes she 
rides on the camel, and her friends follow on other 
camels, but in every case the bride is invisible ; 
either the windows of the palanquin are closed, or 
else there is a covered canopy over the camel on 
which she is sitting ; after a while a company of 
native soldiers passes along, and their swarthy 
faces are generally finer than those of the Eng- 
lish soldiers ; they march wonderfully well, too, 

( i85 ) 
and their uniforms are irreproachable in cut, 
quality, and cleanliness. Presently a shout is 
heard, and now when we hear that shout we say : 
" There are some runners ; I wonder if the Khe- 
dive is coming ! " and we run to our balcony to 
see what great personage it may be. Last night 
about ten o'clock the Khedive went past with his 
escort of soldiers all mounted on fine white horses. 
The runners were dressed almost entirely in white, 
so it was a very pretty sight by gaslight. 

A few days ago some of us went to see the 
Mission School in operation. The boys and girls 
are in different rooms, and many of the rooms now 
have native teachers. We saw classes in arith- 
metic and geometry. Girls were doing sums in 
long division, and boys were going through geo- 
metrical problems, and judging by their quick 
speech and rapid gesticulations they understood 
what they were doing ; much better, in fact, than 
I did, for I am not yet very expert in Arabic 
figures, and never did know much about geome- 
try. Some of the students have very bright, in- 
telligent faces, and some of the little girls were 
actually beautiful in face and form. 

Last Monday afternoon Mr. Little, the Ameri- 
can consul, came to see us, and we gave him a 
cup of coffee made by Janet's fair hands. Our 
party are all very capable, excepting your humble 
servant, and we find it very convenient many 
times. We have just finished making five flags 
with the stars and stripes, which are to wave from 
the tops of our tents during our trip through Pal- 

( i86 ) 

estine. We are justly proud of them, and hope 
they long may wave to show what the enterprise 
of American women can do. 

We have had rain twice during the past week. 
Yesterday the rain came down in torrents, and 
when it was over I went out to see if the mail had 
brought any letters for us. The streets were like 
rivers and the mud was terrible. To-day is lovely 
and the sun bright, although the air is decidedly 
cool. The weather is changeable here as else- 
where, and while it is usually pretty warm in the 
middle of the day it is generally cool mornings 
and evenings. 

Cairo's crowds of tourists are departing rap- 
idly, and in a week or two more there will be 
none left in Egypt, but they will all be in Pales- 
tine. The boats to Jaffa are much crowded, 
and if it were not for Louis we would feel very 
nervous about our journey, which we begin on 
Saturday, the i8th. He is ever looking out for 
our interests, and has secured accommodations 
for us, both at Port Said and on the steamer from 
there to Jaffa. Our camping outfit will be ready 
for us at Jaffa, and from there we start on a thirty 
days' horseback and tenting tour through the 
Holy Land. My time will be very full then, and 
you need not look for many letters for a few 
weeks. Am so glad you are well. Hope you 
may continue to be in good health all the time I 
am away from home. Much love to you and all 
the family. 

Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

( i87) 

Hotel Conteret, Cairo, 
March 17, 1893. 
My dear William : 

This is our last day in this most fascinating 
city. I am going to be very busy, and am con- 
sequently writing to you before breakfast, when I 
can be sure of being uninterrupted. I feel rather 
heavy-eyed this morning, on account of our un- 
usual dissipation last night. It was one o'clock 
before I got to bed, and as 10.30 is usually 
my bedtime over here, there are several hours 
to be made up somewhere. I rose as usual at 
seven, yesterday, washed my hair before break- 
fast, wrote a long letter after breakfast, and at 
eleven o'clock Elizabeth Merriam and I pre- 
sented ourselves at the American Mission, where 
a guide was to be in readiness to take us to one 
of the girls' Bible classes, which Miss Thompson 
has under her charge. We found a light wagon 
awaiting us, with a very steady old horse before it, 
and a native in nightgown as driver. We got into 
the seat, the driver mounted behind, as the boys 
in Norway do, and drove us through the town 
and a good way beyond the railway station, and 
finally landed us before a stone building in the 
outskirts of the town. Miss Thompson wel- 
comed us cordially, and we sat down to see what 
was being done. It was a prayer-meeting, belong- 
ing to a society of women and girls, and the meet- 
ing was conducted almost entirely by the natives, 
who seemed to possess much confidence and a 
great flow of language. Although not able to 

( i88 ) 
understand a word, excepting as Miss Thompson 
interpreted to us, it was very interesting indeed. 
The women seemed reverent and earnest, and 
quite willing to take part, either in praying, recit- 
ing passages of Scripture, or in making remarks. 
They wore their best clothes, and were very 
much ornamented with long earrings, necklaces, 
and bracelets, and there were some fine, intelli- 
gent, and even handsome faces among them. 
After the meeting was over, many of them came 
up to shake hands with us, and in that respect 
might well be an example to church people in 
America, for it was very pleasant to receive a wel- 
come, even in such a strange gathering as that 
was. We walked home, and did some errands 
before luncheon, after which Emily Choate (Hop- 
pie) and I started out. I was going with her to 
her banker's, and she was going to help me select 
one or two more Egyptian spoons. We got back 
about four o'clock, and then Alice, Kate, and 
Mary Coe were ready to go and call at the 
American Mission. We called there and on some 
people at Shepheard's, and when that was done 
donkeys were at the door to take the young ladies 
up to the citadel for the sunset. Alice, Louis, 
and I went in a carriage, and our procession made 
quite a festive appearance as we went through the 
principal streets of Cairo. We drove up to the 
Alabaster Mosque, and then walked around to 
the further side, where we could have a good view 
of the setting sun, going down over the city. A 
soft, bluish, hazy light settled over the town as 

( i89 ) 

the sun went out of sight, which was very beau- 
tiful, and then the afterglow began to spread 
and color the horizon with gorgeous effect. We 
stayed as long as we dared, but did not get home 
until seven o'clock, and then had to dress for a 
wedding before we could have dinner. If you 
could have seen the devices to which we all re- 
sorted, in order to make ourselves look fine 
enough to go to this high-up wedding, you would 
have smiled. You see our trunks have all been 
sent on to Beirut, and in them, of course, are all 
of our best clothes ; but when we were finally 
arrayed, we really looked quite " expectable," as 
our Turkish dragoman used to say in Constanti- 
nople, and when Louis appeared at nine o'clock 
with a corsage bouquet for each one, and a mam- 
moth bouquet of roses tied up with red ribbon, 
which we were to present at the house, we looked 
as gorgeous as any one could desire. At one time 
we feared we would not be able to see an Egyp- 
tian wedding, for already the Copt Lent has com- 
menced, and the Mohammedan one is about to 
begin ; but we found out, at the beginning of the 
week, that the son of a Pasha was to be married 
on Thursday night, so Louis proceeded to make 
plans for getting us admitted. Alice wrote a note 
to the Pasha, asking permission to come with 
eight American ladies to witness the festivities, 
and inclosed her card. Louis took the note, 
got audience with the Pasha, told him he had a 
very nice party who were anxious to see the wed- 
ding, and came back in triumph, with the words 

( I90 ) 

" With great pleasure " written on the back of 
Alice*s note. Well, at 9.15 we started for the 
house of the Pasha, and, arriving there, were ad- 
mitted into a huge tent covering a whole garden. 
The tent was very high and square across the top 
and sides, and was one mass of brilliant coloring. 
It was lighted with great chandeliers containing 
candles, and the band-stand in the centre was 
completely covered with long, slender, colored 
lanterns with lighted candles. The effect was 
wonderfully fine, and then the whole place was 
carpeted and arranged somewhat like a church, 
with chairs which were filled with men, princi- 
pally, for no native women were there, only the 
strangers who, like ourselves, had come to see the 
affair. We were seated, and served with coffee, 
and stared at by all these hundreds and hundreds 
of men. After a while the usher who had placed 
chairs for us came and escorted us to the entrance 
hall of the house, and we were told to go upstairs. 
We found ourselves in a palace of magnificent pro- 
portions, handsomely decorated and having exqui- 
site rugs and carpets and furniture. Enormous 
crystal chandeliers were lighted everywhere, and 
the rooms were full of women, none of them 
veiled, as no men were allowed there excepting 
eunuchs, and there were plenty of them, black as 
the ace of spades, for they were masters of cere- 
monies. Such gorgeous gowns as we saw there, 
and such grotesque figures as were inside them ! 
There were Greek and Turkish ladies, Egyp- 
tians and many others, and it seemed as if all 

( 191 ) 

classes were represented. There were black faces, 
brown faces, yellow faces, and white faces. On 
ascending the grand marble stairs we found our- 
selves in a great hall, on either side of which were 
splendid rooms. Those on the right were evi- 
dently drawing-room and music-room, and those 
on the left, the suite of the bride and groom. The 
first of these, facing the front of the house, con- 
tained a splendid canopy of white satin, heavily 
embroidered in gold, and on the raised platform 
rested the two chairs upon which the couple were 
to sit after a while. The back of the canopy was 
festooned with artificial roses, and a heavy gold 
fringe hung down in front. The next room was 
the bedroom, and the bed, canopy, and all the 
appointments were of satin, lace, and silver em- 
broidery, while the toilet articles were numerous 
and were of massive silver. In this room were 
shown the toilet garments of the groom, and 
everything was of silk of the finest quality. Next 
came the dressing-room of the bride, and here we 
saw beautiful underwear and nightdresses, all in- 
closed in beautifully embroidered cases. 

After inspecting all these rooms we passed out 
into the hall and across it to the drawing-room 
where luxurious chairs and sofas invited one to 
rest, and here ladies were smoking cigarettes, 
and little tables held all the requirements for this 
pleasure. On being offered cigarettes, most of 
us accepted, and both Kate and I smoked ours 
almost to the end. I may become addicted to the 
habit, and you may find me a confirmed smoker 

( 192 ) 

when I get home, for it was really rather agree- 
able than otherwise. 

About 1 1.30 it was noised among the company 
that the bride would soon be brought through 
the hall, and would be taken to the throne room, 
so we proceeded to the hall, and while servants 
and friends displayed many beautiful presents and 
proclaimed the donors, we watched and waited. 
Finally eunuchs came with lighted candles which 
were at least three feet high, and formed the out- 
line of the passage reserved for the bride, and 
then she appeared. A lovely face she had, but 
was very pale, and fairly staggering under the 
weight of her bridal array, although supported by 
her two maids of honor. A crown of diamonds 
was on her head, enormous head-lights were in 
her ears, her gown was of heavy satin, court train 
at least three yards long, and woven in cloth of 
gold. Her veil reached to the bottom of her 
gown, and was a mass of gold embroidery. The 
edge of the gown was finished with white ostrich 
tips and orange blossoms. Her eyes were soft and 
lustrous, and her expression was sad ; the latter 
might have been owing to the story we heard of 
her being opposed to the marriage. The man 
she has married has two other wives and is nei- 
ther very young nor particularly attractive look- 
ing. When we next saw her she was seated on 
one of the two armchairs under the canopy, being 
fanned by one of her ladies, while her mother sat 
on the floor of the platform and spoke to her 
friends, and attendants with black faces and gay 

( 193 ) 
apparel were grouped about. It was a most beau- 
tiful and picturesque sight. As soon as occasion 
offered we advanced by ones and twos and pre- 
sented our bouquets to the mother, as we had 
been told to do, and soon after descended the 
stairs, with the expectation of coming away ; but 
we were told that the groom, who had been to 
the mosque with his friends to pray, was soon 
coming, so we remained. 1 was one of our party 
who was fortunate enough to be quite near him 
when he appeared, escorted by his friends, and 
the priest offered a prayer before he entered the 
house. The groom looked right at me all the 
time. Perhaps he was afraid to change his gaze, 
for fear of being rattled, and when the prayer was 
finished, his friends gave him three cheers, — at 
least it would have been three cheers in English, 
— and he was borne away, and was last seen as- 
cending the stairs, probably to sit in the other 
chair under the canopy. Then we came away, 
well satisfied with having seen one of the finest 
weddings that has taken place in Cairo this winter. 
Money was showered upon the bride, as she 
passed through the hall, and I picked up a piece, 
which is very valuable to me, although it only 
represents one and a half cents in government 

Now I must write in my journal and to father, 
and pack, and meet the consul, and go to the 
bank, etc., so that you can easily see that I am 
not likely to have much leisure to-day. To-mor- 
row morning we leave at nine o'clock, and every- 

( 194 ) 
thing must be ready to-night. Since this letter 
was begun we have had breakfast, and have trans- 
acted a lot of business with Louis. I bought 
some copper things the other day, and have sent 
them along with some baskets we got up the 
river. I send an invoice of the things, and sup- 
pose this box also will remain unopened until my 

I think it a very good plan your spending all 
your time in Eddy, and hope you will gain a great 
deal by the good air and comfortable and plea- 
sant time there. Am so glad that you speak so 
hopefully of coming over in June, but would be 
just as well pleased to go home in October as in 
September. I really do not care particularly about 
going to Chicago, and you might take it in before 
you come over. You would have no trouble in 
making up a nice party. 

Now I must end this awful letter. Do not be 
quite dismayed when you see it. Much love to 
Will and to you and the family. 
Your loving wife, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Jerusalem, March 24, 1893. 
My dear Father : 

A week ago to-day I wrote you from Cairo, 
not knowing when I might have another oppor- 
tunity, but circumstances have favored letter- 
writing rather than sight-seeing, for the past two 
days, so you will hear from me as usual. 

Saturday morning, the 1 8th, our party of nine, 

( 195) 
besides Louis Mansour, our dragoman, left Cairo. 
It was with real regret that we came away from that 
fascinating city, but we had too many other inter- 
esting places to visit to be able to linger there any 
longer. We took train to Ismailia, passing through 
the Land of Goshen and part of the Arabian Des- 
ert on our way. Arriving at Ismailia at noon we 
took lunch before embarking on the steamer by 
way of the Suez Canal. The sail of about fifty 
miles on this wonderful canal was most interest- 
ing, for it is literally a water road through the des- 
ert. At six o'clock we were at Port Said, a very 
picturesque looking town at the junction of the 
Mediterranean Sea and the canal. There we spent 
the night and until five o'clock the next afternoon, 
when we left on a large steamer of the French line 
for Jaffa. The weather was beautiful and the sea 
perfectly smooth all night, and we were able to 
land at Jaffa very comfortably in small boats. 
Jaffa has no harbor and a rocky coast, so that 
landing there in rough or stormy weather is often 
a very troublesome and dangerous undertaking, 
so we felt that we were very fortunate indeed. 
Michael, our second dragoman, who had gone 
ahead ten days before to prepare for our recep- 
tion at Jaffa, came off to meet us, and before long 
we were safely landed amid the motley crowd of 
natives on the shore, and were carefully conducted 
through the dirty, narrow streets, and to the ele- 
vated ground just back of the town, where we had 
seen the American flags waving from our encamp- 
ment. We reached our tents about 7.30 Mon- 

( 196) 

day morning, the 20th, and found breakfast ready 
for us. Everything was in order, and all we had 
to do was to take possession of our comfortable 
little houses. Each tent was lined with bright 
Egyptian patchwork, in designs something like 
the bedquilts which used to be so fashionable, — 
the grassy and flower-bedecked earth was covered 
with heavy rugs, one or two iron folding beds, 
according to the number of persons, were in each 
tent, and the linen was beautifully white, while 
the blankets were scarlet. There was a table with 
bowl, and pitcher, and toilet articles, also a silver 
candlestick and box of matches ready for use, 
A comfortable chair completed the furniture of 
the attractive little room. When we went into the 
saloon tent for breakfast we found a table covered 
with fine linen and set with nice china and glass- 
ware, and silver knives, forks, and spoons ; in fact 
we seemed to have every comfort one would ex- 
pect in a private house, and plenty of good things 
to eat besides. Of course we were delighted with 
our surroundings, and made ourselves at home. 
The day was warm and bright, and we felt that 
our camping life had begun in the most delight- 
ful way. All our horses and pack mules were 
tethered near the camp, and after lunch the 
saddles were put on and we went for a trial ride. 
Some of our party had never been on horseback, 
and were quite nervous, but every one bore the 
test very well, and after a while each person had 
a horse and saddle, which seemed just as it ought 
to be. Later in the afternoon we took a stroll 

( 197 ) 
around Jaffa, and picking our way very carefully 
along the crooked, dirty, narrow alleys, which 
they call streets, we came to an ancient stone 
building of one story, which is said to have been 
Simon the tanner's house. It is now used for a 
mosque, and is empty, and anything but an at- 
tractive looking place. Out in the court we found 
old stone stairs leading to the roof, and mount- 
ing them we found ourselves on a flat stone roof 
with a domelike elevation in the centre, and all 
the other roofs in the neighborhood were just the 
same. The view seaward was very fine, and the 
sunset was glorious. 

When we reached camp, dinner was ready, and 
soon afterwards we went to bed, as next day was 
to be the beginning of our travels through Pales- 
tine. Louis called us at 6.30 Tuesday morning, 
and by the time we had finished breakfast our 
tents had disappeared and the pack mules were 
being loaded. You can have no idea how much 
work it is to break camp, but those men, who 
are accustomed to that sort of thing, manage 
to do it in an incredibly short time. At nine 
o'clock we were in our saddles and leaving Jaffa 

Of course there were some delays this first day, 
on account of restive animals, slipping saddles, 
and nervous riders, but Louis was equal to all 
emergencies, and when we camped at Ramleh for 
lunch at noon we were delighted with the ride, the 
scenery, and with our able manager. Ramleh is 
said to have been the birthplace of Joseph of 

( 198 ) 
Arimathaea. Our lunch tent was pitched where 
an ancient mosque once stood, of which the tower 
and some of the old walls only remain. After 
lunch we climbed the tower for the view, which 
was magnificent. On one side lay the plain of 
Sharon, through which we had passed during the 
morning ; fertile fields and olive orchards lay be- 
tween us and the hills of Jordan, while Ramleh 
was at our feet. In the afternoon we rode four 
hours before reaching our camp, and never did 
seven tents look so inviting before. Twenty- 
two miles on horseback, going at a slow pace, is 
enough for even a good rider, so you can ima- 
gine how glad we were to rest. Dinner and then 
bed was the order for that evening. 

Wednesday morning the patter of rain on my 
tent was not a pleasant sound, and I wondered if 
we would go on or stay for clear weather. We 
were aroused at 6.30 as usual, and after breakfast 
decided to at least try to make half a day in order 
to reach a better camping ground. After we were 
once under way it was easier to go on than to halt, 
so we pushed on for Jerusalem, mostly up hill, 
in one of the worst storms I ever experienced ; 
the wind was a perfect gale, sleet blinded the 
horses, and during the last hour snow fell in large 
flakes. Sometimes it seemed as if we would be 
blown from the road into the valley, but our 
horses acted splendidly, and before sunset we 
trailed into the modern city of Jerusalem, a wet, 
weary, and bedraggled procession. It was too 
stormy to attempt camping, and the hotels could 

( 199 ) 
not take us In, so Louis brought us to this con- 
vent where the monks gave us a warm welcome, 
and we have been comfortably housed ever since. 
In twenty-five years of constant travel in Pales- 
tine, Louis says he never saw such weather as this 
but once before. Yesterday morning the snow 
was several inches deep, and the storm has con- 
tinued with unabated fury until since I have been 
writing this letter. Strange to say, none of us 
have suffered the least inconvenience from our 
exposure, but we were fortunate in having had 
plenty of brandy with us, and used it liberally. 

As yet we have not seen Jerusalem, but as the 
sun has come out at last we will probably make 
up for lost time to-day. This cold weather will 
not last long, and in a few days we will be enjoy- 
ing balmy breezes again. The gardens and the 
country are filled with gay flowers, and only the 
hills of Judaea look bleak and bare. We will be 
here until Monday, and then expect to make a 
three days* trip to the Jordan, Dead Sea, and 
Bethlehem. We will return here for Holy Thurs- 
day and Good Friday, and start on Saturday, 
April 1st, for a ten days* ride to Damascus. 

I have written this letter before breakfast, and 
it is not yet 8.15. Remember me lovingly to the 
family and friends. Your last letter was received 
March 17th, the same day on which I wrote you 

Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

( 200 ) 

Franciscan Hospice, Jerusalem, 
March 25, 1893. 

My dear William : 

I wrote you from our camp at Jaffa on the 
20thj and Will from here on the 23d, and am 
going to try to send you a missiv^e to-night. 
We have been at work so hard all day that I 
am pretty tired, and will not be able to do my 
subject justice, but one thing I can say, it has 
been a most interesting day. I wrote Will on 
Thursday and detailed the experiences of Wednes- 
day in the sleet and snow. Strange to relate, 
not one of us took cold, and we are just as well as 
any one could wish. 

Yesterday morning it was still raining, but 
some of the party ventured out. I was one who 
remained at home, because I did not relish walk- 
ing in the slush, but after lunch we all went to 
the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, where there 
are so many relics of Christ, and remembrances 
of his life, sufferings, and death. It is a wonder- 
ful church, especially from its associations, and in 
it I really felt myself on holy ground. Just as we 
entered, the Greek Patriarch with his priests came 
in, and after paying devotion in the Holy Sep- 
ulchre, where Christ is said to have been buried, 
he was put into his sacred robes, and entering the 
Greek chapel was placed in his chair with great 
pomp and ceremony, after which the service be- 
gan. The place was filled with pilgrims, and most 
of them were Russians, who looked as uncouth 
as they did in their native country, with their 

( 20I ) 

bushy hair cut off straight, and their ugly frock 
coats. We spent some time in going to all the 
points of interest in the church, and then visited 
some of the shops where olive-wood articles are a 

The streets of old Jerusalem (and we are in the 
old part) are very narrow, crooked, and dirty, and 
every little way are steps, and often a whole street 
will be under cover and vaulted like the nave 
of a church. This morning we started for the 
Mosque of Omar, with Louis and Michael, and a 
soldier as guard. We saw nothing all the morn- 
ing to make us feel that a guard was necessary ; 
the sheik of the mosque, who seemed to feel a 
great friendship for Louis, and who showed us 
around, was most bland and gracious to all of us. 
What is commonly called the Mosque of Omar 
is really a shrine, is very large and magnificent, 
reminding me of the gorgeousness of the Russian 
and Greek mosques in the beautiful windows and 
fine mosaic work, both inside and outside. In 
the centre of the building, under the dome, is the 
great rock, sixty feet long and nearly as wide, 
through which it is said Mohammed mounted 
to heaven, and on the top of this rock Abraham 
made burnt offerings. They show the footprint 
of Mohammed and the hand-print of Gabriel, 
and some wonderful old marble altars, which are 
said to have come out of Solomon's Temple. 
The real Mosque of Omar is some hundreds of 
yards across the stone-flagged court, and while 
very extensive, is much like any of the mosques 

( 202 ) 

either in Cairo or in Constantinople. Solomon's 
stables stretch over a great part of Mount Mo- 
riahj and under the two mosques. These stables 
have only been excavated about two years, and 
are undoubtedly very ancient, and probably were 
the real stables belonging to Solomon. There 
would have been plenty of room for several thou- 
sand horses in those large and numerous vaults. 
After coming up from the stables we walked 
along the city wall a short distance, and looking 
out between the turrets saw the Mount of Olives, 
with Gethsemane on one side lower down and 
the Valley of Jehoshaphat in the foreground. We 
were shown the place where the Pool of Siloam 
is and where the Pool of Bethesda used to be. 
The walls of Jerusalem are irregular in form and 
very high, but the distance around is only about 
two and a half miles. Some of our party walked 
nearly around them this afternoon. On our way 
home this morning we stopped at the Sisters of 
Zion Convent, and were shown the corner stone 
of Pilate's house, and then were led to the roof 
for the view of the city, which was very fine. To- 
day has been a beautiful day and actually hot 
in the sun. It seemed very odd to see the boys 
making snowballs in the streets, and to feel the 
balmy air at the same time. Some of the distant 
hills look quite white, but the snow has all gone 
from the city, excepting in corners. After lunch 
we went to Mount Zion. You might think it a 
long way off, but it took us only a few minutes 
to reach the place where David is said to be 

( 203 ) 
buried, and in the upper room of this building 
we saw the place where the Last Supper was laid. 
Some distance further on we came to the site of 
the house of Caiaphas, and where Christ was im- 
prisoned. This morning we traversed Via Dolo- 
rosa, the street where are seven stations, detailing 
Christ's sufferings on the way to the crucifixion. 
The street itself is arched and gloomy, and not 
very clean, especially just now when there has 
been so much rain and snow, and when so many 
pilgrims are in the city. 

To-morrow morning we are to have breakfast 
at six o'clock, and then go to the Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre to witness the ceremonials of 
Palm Sunday. We will be occupied there until 
about ten, then back to lunch at eleven, and at 
twelve our horses will be here and we will ride 
over to Bethlehem and back before evening. 
Dinner we will take in camp, and on Monday 
morning will start for Jericho, Jordan, and the 
Dead Sea. We are hoping for good weather, and 
it looks clear, so we will hope for the best. I 
have to pack my traps to-night, ^s the luggage 
will be taken over to the camp while we are in 
church to-morrow. We will return to Jerusalem 
on Wednesday night, and spend Holy Thursday 
and Good Friday here, and on Saturday start for 

Give my love to all friends, and remember me 
warmly to Dr. Smith and Mr. McCool. Much 
love to Will and to you. 

Your loving wife, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

( 204 ) 

In Camp, opposite the Damascus Gate, 
Jerusalem, March 31, 1893. 

My dear William : 

Since my last letter on the 25th I have been 
too much occupied to write, and when you hear 
of all our experiences you will think we have had 
enough to do and are very tough besides. I am 
writing in my tent before breakfast, and this is 
Good Friday, and the sun is shining. I mention 
this latter fact because it has been the exception 
for the sun to shine during the past two weeks, 
and we are all very thankful to see it. Louis says 
the weather is finished now, and by that he means 
that we are to have good weather. 

I wrote you on Saturday, and as the next day 
was Palm Sunday we rose at five o'clock, and a 
little after six were in the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre to hear and see the service. Louis got 
a place for us in the Greek Chapel directly oppo- 
site the entrance to the Holy Sepulchre where 
everything took place, and as we were about six 
feet above the floor we had a splendid view. We 
stood for three hours looking at rites and cere- 
monies, processions, gorgeous gowns, etc., and 
were very much interested, but I cannot attempt 
to describe it. You have seen Catholic services, 
and so can imagine something of its gorgeous- 
ness, and the palm branches were very promi- 
nent in the service. After our return to the Hos- 
pice we got ready to leave, and after luncheon at 
11.30 we started about 12.30 on horseback for 
Bethlehem. It was very pleasant when we started. 

( 205 ) 
and we had a delightful ride over the six miles of 
hill and dale between Jerusalem and Bethlehem. 
The town is beautifully situated on a hill, but, 
as usual, distance lent enchantment, for on enter- 
ing the narrow streets we found them just as 
dirty and smelly as any of the other Palestine 
villages. It is a town of about 7000 inhabitants, 
closely built, the houses all being crowded upon 
each other until one reaches the market place, 
just by the old Church of the Nativity. In this 
ancient building where the Greeks, Latins, and 
Armenians each have their separate chapel, and 
even then must have soldiers to keep the peace, 
we found a corner away from all the rest, where 
Christ was born and cradled in a manger. One 
cannot help having a feeling of awe and of ten- 
derness also, when standing in this sacred place. 
We entered and retired reverently, and then were 
taken to another chapel not far away, which is 
called the " Milk Grotto." It is the place where 
Mary hid herself awhile after the birth of Christ, 
and the story is told how a drop of her milk fell 
upon the floor and whitened the whole place. 
Afterwards we walked along a lane to the out- 
skirts of the town, and from this elevation looked 
down upon the Shepherds' Field, where the shep- 
herds watched their flocks by night, when Christ 
was born in Bethlehem of Judaea, in the City 
of David, and where Ruth gleaned in the field of 
Boaz. The two fields were almost side by side. 
By the time we were ready to start for Jerusalem 
it was raining, so we donned our rubbers and 

( 206 ) 

waterproofs and returned to camp in the rain. 
Our luggage had been sent over from the Hos- 
pice, so we were soon settled and eating a good 
dinner, and glad enough to be back in camp. 
That night the heavens were opened, and thunder 
rolled and the wind blew great guns. The wind 
can blow in Palestine, as we have reason to know, 
and when it rains the harder the wind blows. 
Monday morning the storm was still raging, so 
we concluded there was nothing to do but to stay- 
where we were. It was a fearful day and seemed 
to grow worse instead of better, but Tuesday 
morning, although it was still raining, Louis said 
we had better start for Jericho, so during a lull 
we got off at nine o'clock. It rained for a couple 
of hours, as we passed Gethsemane, the Mount 
of Olives, and Bethany, in our windings down 
the hills to the valley of Jericho. We literally 
went down to Jericho, for it was down hill most 
of the way. At noon we halted for lunch at the 
Samaritan Inn, on a hill, and while there is 
nothing left of the original inn where the Good 
Samaritan carried the poor man who had been 
robbed and left for dead by the wayside, there is 
a large inclosure with a high stone wall and one 
end covered. Horses and people all entered this 
large courtyard, and we found a table spread with 
our lunch, which looked very inviting. 

The afternoon was lovely, sunny, and warm, 
and while the road was not very good some of 
the way, we got along splendidly. They are build- 
ing a carriage road which will be complete before 

( 207 ) 

long, from Jerusalem to Jericho, and perhaps to 
the Jordan and the Dead Sea too. I am sure it is 
needed badly enough. Near the end of our jour- 
ney we came to the Brook Cherith, where Elijah 
was fed by the ravens. We were on top of a hill 
where we looked down about five hundred feet into 
a gorge, where the river rushed between the banks, 
and the view all around was magnificent. On the 
left was this wild gorge, and to the right the hills 
were soft and hazy in the afternoon hght, and we 
could see a portion of the Dead Sea, which looked 
as blue as the Mediterranean. In front stretched 
the valley, with Jericho, or where it once stood, 
in the distance. When we reached the valley we 
had to ford the river, and what seemed a mere 
thread of silver, in looking down upon it, turned 
out to be a turbulent stream twenty or thirty 
feet wide, very rapid and with steep, stony banks. 
It was quite an exciting time getting over, for 
Louis and his men shouted continually, the 
horses and their riders were nervous, and we felt 
as if we wished we had n't come. However, all 
went well, and soon we were climbing the wind- 
ing road around the hills, until at last the wel- 
come tents appeared before us. We had a beau- 
tiful sunset and a delicious dinner. How they 
manage to get so far ahead of us, and to have 
everything ready on our arrival, is one of the 
wonders to which we do not get accustomed, but 
it is very delightful. The baggage goes on while 
we halt for lunch, and during this time all the 
work is accomplished. We had a very comfort- 

( 208 ) 

able night, and next morning the sun was shin- 
ing, but it did not last long. At nine we were 
off, leaving the camp behind, for Jericho, the 
Dead Sea, and the River Jordan. 

Our road was by many a winding path, for of 
highroads there were none. Up hill and down 
hill, and over rocky streams we went for half an 
hour or more until we entered the little miser- 
able village which stands on the site of ancient 
Jericho. Bedouin tents and Arab huts were near 
together, and a small, forlorn looking hotel stood 
ready to take in the innocent traveler. We did 
not stop, as we saw all we wanted to see of the 
place from our saddles. Not long after we had 
passed by Jericho the thunderstorm broke, but we 
were ready for it, and would not have minded it 
if the valley had not been of white clay, which 
soon became very sticky as well as very slippery. 
I would not have believed that the company 
could go up and down such awful places as we 
did. Once we had to dismount and walk down a 
bad place. The trip to the Dead Sea, which usu- 
ally takes two hours, took us three and a half, 
and when we arrived there was not a place to sit or 
stand excepting on the pebbly beach. The whole 
plain is the most desolate place you ever saw, not 
excepting the Yuma Desert, — nothing growing 
but a few stunted shrubs, and the rest a dreary 
waste of white clay which would have been dust 
on a dry, hot day. The usual accompaniments 
to a trip to the Dead Sea, dust and great heat, 
we did not have, but the wind was awful. We 

( 209 ) 

looked at the sea from our saddles, and it looked 
gray and sullen, with good-sized waves rolling in 
with a desolate sound. We were glad to leave it 
behind, and make for the Jordan, without wait- 
ing for lunch. We rode through a brook-path 
all the way, another hour and a half, and finally 
reached the banks of the famous river, now swollen 
to more than twice its usual size by the heavy 
rains. Here the lunch tent was pitched and we 
were fortunate enough to have no rain there. 
The banks were lined with shrubs and bushes and 
a few good-sized trees, while the valley was quite 
green and had plenty of wild flowers blooming 
in it. 

We went back to camp by a different route, 
thus avoiding the bad road of the morning. We 
passed and met many pilgrims on their way to 
and from the Jordan, and saw some of them bath- 
ing in it. We had a Bedouin guard from the time 
of leaving Jerusalem until we got back, as they 
say it is not safe to travel in this country without 
one. He was a very handsome man, with a fine 
horse, and took good care of us. It was pleasant 
to get back to our comfortable camp after such 
a hard day, but we all stood it finely. 

Yesterday morning we broke camp and started 
at 8.30 for Jerusalem. The day was beautiful. 
We rode five hours, lunched at the Apostles' 
Fountain, and then came on to Bethany, where 
we stopped to see the Fount of Lazarus and the 
burial place of Mary and Martha. Then we 
climbed the hill to the Mount of Olives, got a 

( 2IO ) 

view of Jerusalem from it, then went down to 
Gethsemane, and then to camp. 

We went this afternoon to the waiHng place 
of the Jews. This service occurs every Friday- 
afternoon, by an old wall, which is said to ha\^e 
been a part of the ancient temple. It was quite 
a curious sight, to see them waving their bodies 
back and forth and uttering wailing sounds as 
they mourn over the desolation which has come 
to the Jews. 

I am trying to finish this so that we may take 
it to the post this morning, and they are waiting 
for me. So with much love to you and to all 
friends and to Will, from the Fishers and me, 
Your loving wife, 

Lizzie McMillan. 
We are all well, and are to start to-morrow on a 
ten days' trip to Damascus. 

Jenin, Palestine, April 4, 1893. 

My dear William : 

I am sitting at my tent door, a candle on a 
stool to light my paper, and the sounds of the 
camp in my ears. Our tents are in a circle, and 
Japanese lanterns lend a mysterious light to the 
place. The dining saloon is almost opposite to 
me, and I see that dinner is nearly ready. We 
have earned a rest, for we have come about 
twenty miles over the hills and mountains of 
Samaria, and have been nearly eight hours in the 
saddle. Traveling in Palestine is not mere child's 
play, I can tell you, but we are a plucky set of 

(211 ) 

women, and are doing things in the equestrian 
line every day which we would have deemed 
quite impossible a few weeks ago. 

Dinner was announced just here, and there was 
no delay from our nine in responding to the call. 
It is perfectly astonishing how well Alice stands 
the riding. She seems quite as fresh as any of 
us at the end of each day, and I must confess 
that I had my doubts about her being able to 
stand the trip. We have a great deal of fun. 
Miss Dodge is very bright, and she and Kate are 
sharp-shooting continually, which affords us all 
a great deal of amusement. 

I was so disappointed not to get any letters at 
Jerusalem ! We only arranged to have one mail 
sent there, knowing how irregular the mails are 
in this country, but on our return from Jericho 
we could not get anything on Friday because it was 
Good Friday, nor on Saturday because it was 
the day before Easter, so there was nothing to 
do but to give directions to have our mail sent 
on to Damascus. 

We broke camp on Saturday morning, April 
1st, and set off on the real cross country journey. 
If you could see the only highway which is be- 
tween Jerusalem and Damascus, you would won- 
der that I am alive to tell the tale. Only a bridle 
path at most, and of the worst kind. Your im- 
agination, however vivid it may be, can picture 
nothing to equal it. The trail up the mountain 
at Chamouni was a marble floor beside this. 
Rocks so thick that it seems more like the bed 

( 212 ) 

of a dried up stream, than anything else, and it 
has been like going up and down stairs, and by 
no means shallow steps, either. Up and down 
over the hills of Judaea and Samaria have we 
gone in this way for four days. You can easily 
see that to cover eighteen or twenty miles at a 
snaiFs pace we must be many hours in the sad- 
dle, and yet we have stood it splendidly, are all 
well, have good appetites for all the good things 
Louis provides for us, and are enjoying ourselves 
and the sight-seeing very much. It is such an 
interesting country and the views are so fine, that 
there is always something pleasant to think and 
talk about. 

Saturday night we camped at Bethel, the 
place where Jacob saw the ladder with the angels 
ascending and descending on it. Sunday we 
lunched at Shiloh. Nothing remains of that 
place but the ruins of an old church on one hill 
and a small sanctuary on another, and this latter 
place is said to be where the ark of the Lord 
rested for three hundred years. Our lunch tent 
was pitched there, and we explored the dark in- 
terior, where four marble pillars remain standing. 
The hills of Judaea are stony and bare, with not 
a tree to be seen, but those of Samaria are green 
and fertile, and great olive and fig orchards cover 
the hillsides, while the valleys are beautiful with 
growing grain and many-colored wild flowers. It 
was among these valleys that Jacob's flocks fed, 
and I have seen the real descendants of those 
same flocks, still feeding in these same valleys. 

( ^13 ) 
We have passed a good many towns perched on 
hilltops, and they always look better from a dis- 
tance. Sunday night's camp was at Hawara, where 
we had a fine prospect from our tent doors. Yes- 
terday we stopped on our way to Shechem to see 
Jacob's Well, where Christ conversed with the 
woman of Samaria. We descended quite a long 
flight of stairs and found the well in a small 
stone building. It is seventy feet deep, the stone 
curb looks ancient, and the water is very sweet 
and good. They say that this well is really 
authentic, and that it is the only place in Pales- 
tine where one can draw a circle inclosing twenty 
feet, and be sure that Christ ever stepped within 
that circle. 

A short ride from Jacob's Well brought us to 
the old town of Shechem. It is a very quaint 
old place, with arched streets and bazaars and 
an old mosque. We went into the old Samari- 
tan Church, and saw the parchment copy of the 
Pentateuch. The country around Shechem is 
very pretty, and has eighty springs. We stopped 
for lunch a little beyond Shechem, near an old 
flour mill, and had a nice lunch and rest. In 
the afternoon we made Samaria by many ups and 
downs and twists and turns. We camped on 
the hill above what is left of the town, and 
among the ruins of what was once Herod's palace. 
Many stone and granite pillars are still standing, 
but they are all that remain of what was once a 
magnificent palace, with beautiful grounds. Some 
of us climbed the western hill for the sunset, and 

( 214 ) 
were rewarded in another way as well, for our 
trouble. The hill stands in the centre of the val- 
ley, and commands a view of valley and moun- 
tains on all sides. It was indeed a splendid situa- 
tion for a palace. This morning we were off at 
8.30 and first made a circuit of the hill, to see 
how fine it must have been at one time. Then 
we descended by a rocky, slippery path, and as 
soon as we were down, commenced going up 
again. We kept that up all day, excepting when 
we were on the plain, and then the mud was so 
deep that we were afraid of being mired. There 
has been so much rain here this spring that the 
level roads are very bad. We generally get up at 
6.30 and leave for new pastures about 8.30, but 
to-morrow will be a hard day, and as we want to 
get to Nazareth early enough to see the sights 
before dark, we have asked Louis to call us at 5.30, 
so we can get off by 7.30. You see it takes 
time to break up camp, and while we are at break- 
fast Louis and his men are hard at work, getting 
the tents rolled up, the beds packed away, and the 
packages put on the pack mules. We have nine- 
teen men and forty-one animals in our caravan ; 
then Louis and Michael and nine women. Our 
horses are very good indeed. They are not re- 
markable for good looks, but for use. They are 
generally good walkers, and sure footed, and that 
is more necessary than speed on a trip of this 
kind. Still, they can travel very well indeed when 
the roads are suitable. It is about ten o'clock and 
my candle is almost burned out, so I will have 

(215) ' 
to close my letter. It will be mailed to-morrow 
evening at Nazareth. We do not have many 
more chances for mailing letters until we reach 
Damascus about the 12th or 13th. Our arrival 
there will depend upon ourselves and how we 
bear the journey. If any one should be sick, we 
would have to rest a day, otherwise we expect to 
push on every day, and make an average of 
eighteen miles a day. 

Give much love to Will, and accept a great 
deal for your dear self. Alice and Kate send love 
to both of you. Love to all friends, and remem- 
brances to the girls. 

Your loving wife, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

In Camp at Nazareth, 
April 6, 1893. 
My dear Will : 

I wonder how it would seem to get some let- 
ters from home. We have had nothing since 
leaving Cairo, on the i8th of March, and cannot 
get anything until the 12th or 13th at Damascus, 
and perhaps not then. I wrote your father on 
Tuesday night from Jenin, but it will be mailed 
at the same time as this. There may not be an- 
other chance for mailing letters until we reach 
Damascus, so I concluded to send you a line tell- 
ing of our thrilling experience and hairbreadth 
escapes yesterday. We got started, with the whole 
caravan in front of us, at 7.45. We first crossed 
the Plain of Jezreel, which is rather soft, but not 

( 2l6 ) 

so bad as we had feared it would be. This is the 
plain where so many battles with the Philistines 
were fought, about which you used to be so fond 
of hearing. Then we came to the town of Jez- 
reel, where Ahab had his ivory house, and where 
he and his wife Jezebel met such a terrible 
although deserved fate. The poverty-stricken 
stone huts of the town had nothing about them 
to remind one of ivory palaces. After that our 
troubles began, as the next plain was full of bogs 
and marshy places, owing to the recent heavy 
rains. One by one the pack mules sank in the 
mud under their burdens, and were unable to rise 
until the load was taken off. As the presence of 
Louis was needed all the time, of course we had 
to wait until all the train was safely over the bad 
place, before we attempted it ourselves, and once 
or twice some of us came near being mired. Miss 
Merriam's horse went in almost up to his tail, 
and Elizabeth sat calmly on his back and said, 
" Michael, do you think I had better get off? " 
but she did not have to, for Michael pulled her 
out all right. A few days ago, while we were 
standing still on horseback, Kate's horse calmly 
sat down, with the intention of rolling, and Kate 
stepped off. We all laughed a great deal at her, 
but yesterday Mrs. Aiken's horse did the same 
thing. I wonder if horses could n't be taught, as 
camels are, to lie down for ladies to mount and 
dismount. It would save Louis a good deal of 
trouble, as he insists on our mounting from the 
ground and having some style about us. Well, 

( 217 ) 
we kept on going up rocky hills, then down again 
into the valley, and across the muddy plains. 
When we stopped for lunch the train went on, 
and after an hour or two we found it stranded on 
the Plain of Nazareth. Louis went to the rescue, 
and soon had it all following us, towards the hill 
of Nazareth. In spite of bogs and ditches and 
hills, we quite enjoyed the day, for the scenery 
was beautiful, and the wild flowers gorgeous and 
abundant. The air was very pleasant, too, for it 
was neither hot nor cold most of the time, and 
if there was an occasional shower we were so well 
protected that we did not mind it. We reached 
the edge of the town and came in finely on a 
level, smooth road. We learned that Gazers 
party, which left Jerusalem four days before we 
did, had a terrible time, and only reached Naza- 
reth twenty-four hours before we did, and then 
without their baggage, which did not arrive until 
late that night, so the people had to put up at 
the wretched little hotels. They left yesterday 
morning, and we are quite anxious about our 
friend Mr. Harger, who is not a strong man and 
will perhaps suffer a good deal. On such a trip 
as this a private party is so much better than one 
of Cook's or Gaze's ! Louis takes such good care 
of his nine ladies ! We are having delightful times 
together, and are enjoying the traveling very 
much, in spite of these little side shows on ac- 
count of the bad weather. To-day is lovely and 
warm. This afternoon we have been out in the 
town, seeing the Church of the Annunciation, 

( 2i8 ) 
into which a portion of the Virgin's house is in- 
serted ; have seen the place where Joseph's car- 
penter shop was located, and have tasted the 
water from the Virgin's Well. The town is finely 
situated on the hills, and has quite a modern air 
about it from a distance. However, it has the 
same narrow streets as all the other Palestine 
towns, and perhaps more than its proportion of 
the dirt. 

I have just been to the saloon tent, where we 
have had afternoon tea, and Louis is engaged in 
preparing walnuts for the candy Miss Coe is to 
make this evening. In a little while, when the 
sun gets lower, we are going to climb the hill to 
see the sunset, and to see the most extended view 
in Palestine. We expect to leave to-morrow 
morning, en route for the Sea of Galilee. We 
have just been buying whips for the third time. 
It speaks badly, either for the quality of the whips 
we have used up, or for our cruelty to animals. 
As the whips only cost two cents each, I prefer 
to think the former is the true state of the case. 
When we get to Damascus we are to have a pic- 
ture taken of our caravan. Some one proposed 
we should have two negatives, one in our storm 
dress and one in our fair weather costume. It 
would certainly tell a story of the weather in Pal- 
estine which would not be encouraging to future 
travelers, if we had one taken in the dress we 
have used most of the time during the eleven 
days we have lived in the saddle. 

I am thinking of you now as either in Call- 

( 219 ) 

fornia or back in St. Louis. I hope the rest and 
change have done both you and your father a 
great deal of good. I was so glad to hear that 
your father had engaged his passage for Liver- 
pool in June, and hope nothing will prevent his 
coming over. How you would enjoy this camp 
Hfe, especially as everything is so comfortable 
that one need not take cold from exposure, and 
the food is so good! We certainly have a treasure 
in our cook. He is a black fellow, but dresses in 
white, and rides a white horse on the road. He 
always takes the lead of the caravan. How he 
manages to get up such splendid meals with all 
this moving about and few conveniences, is a mys- 
tery to all of us ; however, we enjoy the good 
things just the same as if we knew all the ins and 
outs, and perhaps better. The time has come to 
end my letter and start for the top of the hill. 
Mrs. Fisher is not going ; her forte is riding horse- 
back and not walking. Could you imagine her 
doing her eighteen or twenty miles a day on 
horseback, up and down these steep and rocky 
hills, and living to tell the tale ? We tell her that 
at last she has found her vocation. Love to your 
father and to your dear self, and I wish I could 
see you both for a little while this afternoon. 
Your loving mother, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

( 220 ) 

In Camp at Damascus, 
The Pearl of the East, April 13, 1893. 

My dear William : 

I wrote you on the 4th from Jenin, and Will 
from Nazareth on the 6th, since which time there 
has been no chance for writing, and no opportu- 
nity for mailing letters if they had been written. 
Since leaving Nazareth we have had fine weather, 
and have enjoyed our traveling very much. One 
day's journey from Nazareth brought us to Ti- 
berias, on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. This 
is really the town of Galilee of New Testament 
fame. That day we paused at Cana, long enough 
to see the wine jars in which they used to press 
the wine, and to talk over the miracle of the water 
being turned into wine. Cana is a small town, 
rather more dirty and dilapidated than the aver- 
age town, so we did not linger long. It is said that 
Jonah was born near there. We lunched on a 
grassy slope just opposite to that one upon which 
Christ fed the multitude, and when the afternoon 
sun was casting long shadows on the hills and 
across the plains, we arrived in sight of the sea 
and the town close down by the water. We en- 
tered the old gate and rode through the streets, 
which we were astonished to find very clean, 
although narrow. The people also were clean 
and pleasant looking, and seemed to be much 
interested in the party of women who were pass- 
ing through their streets, for they appeared by 
twos and threes in every doorway and passage, 
and smiled upon us. The population of Tiberias 

( 221 ) 

is about 600O5 mostly Jews. We had a lively 
canter along the shore of the sea, before going to 
our tents, in order to see the hot sulphur baths 
of Tiberias. It was a very pleasant change, after 
being obliged to ride so slowly, and we all en- 
joyed it. Next morning we had another diversion 
in our mode of travel. We had a large sail boat 
and made our trip to Capernaum and Bethsaida 
by water. The Sea of Galilee is a beautiful sheet 
of water, quite a sea, in fact, and with our Bibles 
and guide books we had a lesson on the miracles 
and teachings of Christ, in that vicinity. We 
landed at Capernaum, which is now the most 
desolate spot any one can imagine, with only a 
few bits of carved stone left to tell the story of 
the city and the great synagogue which once stood 
there. Coming back in the direction of Tiberias, 
we hugged the shore, and in half an hour were at 
Bethsaida. A colony of German priests live in 
that spot now, and they expect to christianize 
this whole country preparatory to the coming of 
Christ. We lunched at Bethsaida, at least on the 
spot where they tell us it used to stand, and 
picked up pebbles and shells on the pretty little 
beach, and then rowed a little further in the di- 
rection of Tiberias to the place where our camp 
was to be that night. Ain-et-Tineh is the name, 
but I doubt if you can pronounce it. Just before 
sunset we climbed a high hill behind us to get 
the view of the sea and surrounding country. 
The sea is encompassed by ranges of hills, and 
from the top of this high place we had a splendid 
view of hills, valleys, and sea. 

( 222 ) 

On the 9th we were off at 8.15, which meant 
getting up at 6.30, and had some very rough 
and slippery climbing for a couple of hours. We 
passed the village which Rothschild built for the 
Jews, and found that part of the country well cul- 
tivated and more thrifty looking than almost any 
part of Palestine. The waters of Merom appeared 
soon after, and then the snowy crest of Mount 
Hermon came in sight, and has been with us 
until yesterday afternoon. It is a whole range of 
mountains, and the highest point is always snow- 
covered. We had a long hard day, as the road 
was either hilly or rocky, or boggy when we de- 
scended to the plain. We rode twenty-two miles 
that day, and were glad to get to camp and have 
a nice hot dinner. On the loth we broke camp and 
started at 7.45, knowing that the road would be 
bad and our progress would be very slow. We 
passed the source of the Jordan and the ancient site 
of Dan during the morning, and lunched at Ba- 
nias, or Caesarea Philippi, a very picturesque spot, 
with the ruins of a great castle on a spur of the 
mountain. On the Plains of Hermon are many 
Bedouin farmers who live in tents and have 
quite large settlements of these dingy, blackened 
abodes, which reminded one very much of the 
Mexican huts at Eddy. Banias is quite a small 
town, but has a fine situation, a splendid cataract, 
and the old Roman gate which once gave entrance 
to the noted city of Caesarea Philippi. That night 
we camped at Mejdel-esh-Shems, on Mount Her- 
mon, over three thousand feet above the level of 

( 223 ) 
the sea, and we found it very cold. It needed 
all our bedding and extra covering to make 
us comfortable, but it was a healthy air, clear 
and bracing, and did us good. The town is built 
against the chfFs, and the houses have no back 
yards, so that it looked like a colony of swallows* 
nests in a hillside, but everything was quite 
neat and clean as far as we could see. We were 
nearly nine hours in the saddle that day, and yet 
everybody came into camp fresh and happy. 
Tuesday we were on the mountain all day, and 
were often above the snow. The sun was warm 
but the air was crisp, and we felt it was a joy to 
be alive. Our camp was at Kefr Hanwar that 
night, on Nimrod's old hunting grounds. His 
tomb is shown there, but any pile of loose stones 
would do as well. When we mentioned the fact 
to Louis, that the tomb was not worth looking 
at, he said : " Well, it is my duty to show it to 
you, and if I did not, and you read about Nim- 
rod's tomb, you would think you had missed 
something." In which remark he was just about 
right. Yesterday was a perfect day and we had a 
good road, so that our entrance into Damascus 
was a triumphal affair. You ought to see AHce 
ride. She really enjoys it very much, and bears 
all the fatigue quite as well as the youngest 
among us. We had many a lively canter yes- 
terday, and had any amount of fun on the way. 
After lunch we all settled ourselves in the lunch 
tent as usual for a nap, and there was actually 
some snoring, but not among the ladies. It was 

( 224 ) 

Louis. He does not sleep very much at night, 
because of the care and responsibility attending 
the safety of his lovely party, as he calls us. A 
dozen times or more he goes around the camp at 
night, to see that his guard are doing their duty 
and that all is well. On a windy night we often 
hear them pounding in the tent pins, which have 
become loosened by the constant tugging of the 
ropes, as the tent is swayed by the wind. We saw 
the city of Damascus for two hours before we 
reached it, and when we reached the outskirts and 
came along the walled lanes, with arches of foli- 
age overhead, we were perfectly charmed. Great 
groves of olive and apricot trees surround the 
city, and a swift river flows by the side of it. We 
are just outside the city, but quite near to most 
of the objects of interest, and not ten minutes' 
walk from the bank. We fully expected to get 
letters here, but were much disappointed, as there 
were none. On leaving Cairo we arranged for the 
next mail to be sent to Jerusalem. Owing to 
the Easter vacation the banks were closed, so we 
left word for our mail to be sent here, and now 
we must wait for another week until we reach 
Beirut. I have not heard from you since March 

We left Jerusalem the morning of the ist of 
April, and since that time have been ten days in 
the saddle. To say that we are brown would be 
superfluous, but we are all perfectly well, and 
have enjoyed our journey through Palestine very, 
very much. We will be in Damascus three whole 

( 225 ) 
days, sight-seeing and shopping, then five days 
on horseback will bring us to Beirut. The tra- 
vel from now on will be comparatively easy, as 
the roads are much better at this end of the 
route. I got up at six this morning to write this 
letter, for I was too tired last night to put my 
mind on anything but minor matters. We are 
afraid that the Gaze party and our friends the 
Harjers have gone on, but we will hope to find 
them in Beirut. Our camping ground is near 
the river, and under the shade of trees, and is 
most pleasantly located. 

Louis has just been around collecting our 
Turkish passports, and the next thing I hope to 
hear will be the call to breakfast. It is a lovely 
morning and we anticipate a delightful day in the 
city. I dare say you are having lovely weather at 
home now, and suppose the house is making 
rapid strides towards completion. Much love to 
Will and yourself, dear, also to all the friends. I 
hope my boys are both real well. The Fishers 
send love. 

Your loving wife, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

In Camp at Damascus, 
April 15, 1893. 
My dear William : 

Since writing you on the 13 th we have been 
enjoying the oriental sights of Damascus, and 
have been quite fascinated with what we have 
seen. Besides ourselves, there seems to be scarcely 

( 226 ) 

a European or an American in the place, and the 
people regard us with as much, or even more 
curiosity, than we do them. As we wander about 
the bazaars they stop to stare and laugh at us, and 
the women come up and feel our clothes and 
chatter about us among themselves. It is very 
amusing to us to find that we attract so much 
attention, but we never stray far from Louis and 
Michael, for we feel much safer when they are 

On Thursday we visited the bazaars both morn- 
ing and afternoon. Here they are nearly all under 
cover, and some of them are wide and some 
narrow, and all of them are very curious and 
picturesque. We see many Eastern nations repre- 
sented here, and the costumes are oriental, with 
gay colors and odd shapes. Damascus has 1 80,000 
people, so you can see it is quite a large city. 
The architecture is quaint and some of the houses 
are colored in designs, which reminds us of the 
mosques of Moscow. The two rivers, the Abana 
and Pharpar, flow through the city, as in the days 
when Naaman was told to wash in the Jordan, and 
could not see why the rivers of Damascus were 
not as good as this one; the city is surrounded by 
gardens and orchards, so much so that the view is 
very much cut off, excepting from a higher level. 
When we leave here to-morrow we climb to quite 
a height on our way, and look down upon the 
city. Yesterday afternoon we drove wherever 
the streets were wide enough to admit carriages. 
We visited the house of Ananias, where Saul was 

( 227 ) 

told to stay until recovered from his blindness, 
and we drove through the street called Straight. 
It is an arched thoroughfare, dimly lighted by 
windows just under the oval of the arch, and 
looks like a large tunnel, but is a mass of bazaars 
for all kinds of merchandise. It was a wonderful 
oriental scene, and the street is about three 
quarters of a mile long. It was very warm nearly 
all day, but became cloudy in the afternoon, and 
the wind came up with every indication of a 
heavy rainstorm, but the air became cool and 
delicious, and there was no rain after all. To-day 
is not quite so warm, although it is summer 
weather, and we are glad to have both the front 
and back doors of our tents open. We had our 
photos taken yesterday, on horseback, and in a 
group, some of us sitting and some standing, and 
then one in our stormy day attire, much to Louis's 
disgust. He could not see the joke in it at all, 
and said he did not want to see us in a picture 
looking like mummies. This morning we went 
to see the Great Mosque of Damascus. It is 
quite similar to one in Jerusalem, but perhaps 
handsomer in some respects. We all went to the 
top of the tallest minaret for the view, which was 
fine, as the mosque is almost in the centre of the 
city. They sometimes call this city a pearl set in 
emeralds, because of the border of shrubbery and 
gardens all around it, and we saw the force of the 
simile in looking at it from the minaret this 
morning. This afternoon we are going to drive 
again, to visit some native houses, the barracks. 

( "8 ) 
and the house of Naaman, which is a leper hos- 
pital. Our three days in Damascus have been 
most delightful, but three days are as long as we 
need, and to-morrow we start on a five days* 
ride to Beirut. Our journey through Palestine 
will occupy thirty-two days, and out of those 
thirty-two days twenty will have been spent on 
horseback. We are more than ever impressed 
with Louisas business ability, and resources under 
difficult circumstances. It needs a man with 
plenty of brain and pluck, to say nothing of good 
common sense, to conduct parties through this 
country, and he has been more than equal to 
every occasion. No amount of trouble but he 
takes it for our comfort and pleasure, and he 
must have felt the responsibility very great, some- 
times, with no other man to consult as to the 
best thing to be done. I would like very much 
for you to meet him, for he is a true gentleman 
and a splendid man. 

Now I must close, because the carriages have 
come and we must go, and I will have no more 
time for writing before we leave Damascus. We 
are to have some company this evening, a cler- 
gyman and his wife who are camping near us. 
They are English and very pleasant people. 
Much love to both of my boys, and all friends. 
Your loving wife, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

( 229 ) 

New Hotel, Beirut, Syria, 
April 21, 1893. 

My dear William : 

I seem to feel much nearer to you now than I 
have for the past five weeks, since receiving seven 
letters from you and three from Will on our arrival 
here yesterday afternoon. Their dates ran from 
February 21 up to March 21, so you see I have 
news of you up to a month ago, exactly. Long 
e'er this you have our directions to send mail 
to Marquay & Hooker, Florence, and will know 
what we are expecting to do. It was almost im- 
possible to give you our plans for more than a 
month ahead, because we did not know certainly 
what we should do ourselves. It depended a 
good deal on what we should hear from you, and 
also on the cholera question. Now we expect to 
spend a week here, then go to Naples, and per- 
haps spend a week at Castellamare, or Ischia, 
then go to Florence for a few weeks, and after 
that to Paris or London, or both, and be ready 
with Gertrude and Lucie to meet you on your 
arrival the latter part of June. 

Now I must go back to the time we left Da- 
mascus, and give you an account of our last five 
days on horseback. After three delightful days 
in Damascus, we broke camp on the morning of 
the 1 6th, and at 8.30 were climbing a high hill 
to get the last and finest view of the city, before 
turning our backs upon it, perhaps forever. The 
top of the hill reached, — and the horses made a 
lively scramble to get up the steep place, — there 

( 230 ) , 

was the Pearl of the East nestled down, spoon 
shape, in the midst of a forest of living green. It 
was a most beautiful sight, for the background to 
all was range after range of mountain peaks, some 
of them snow-capped. We climbed among the 
mountains all the morning, and reached the Abana 
river about eleven o'clock, keeping near that 
dashing, rapid stream nearly all day. The scenery 
was very wild and rugged, and the path corre- 
sponded to it very well indeed. We lunched that 
day in the wildest and most picturesque spot im- 
aginable, by the side of the roaring river, where 
there was a tiny village clinging to the cliffs and 
quite shut in by high hills. After lunch we skirted 
a deep gorge, where the hillsides were looo feet 
high, and a narrow fertile valley lay at the bottom 
of the gorge, with the river, like a silver thread, 
between the two lines of green. If you could 
have seen us, high up on the hillside, creeping 
carefully along the narrow path, where a mis- 
step of a horse meant disaster, you would have 
thought that headers from donkeys on a level 
plain were very innocent affairs compared with 
this kind of traveling. That night we camped 
at Barada, which is the modern name of the 
Pharpar River. I do not know whether the 
Abana and the Barada rivers are named for the 
towns, or if the towns are named for the rivers, 
but the towns certainly look ancient enough to 
have been named many centuries ago. Louis 
says that on some of those long days before we 
got to Damascus, we rode from twenty-five to 

( 231 ) 

thirty miles a day, as we had to go a good deal 
out of our way in order to avoid the boggy 
plains. This has been an unusual year for storms 
and bad roads in Palestine, and I will tell you 
now that we are the only party which has come 
across the country and has escaped without acci- 
dents more or less serious. None of Cook's and 
Gaze's parties but have been delayed on the road, 
or have failed to connect with their outfit, during 
the journey, and some of them have had terrible 
times, and have almost lost their lives. Thanks 
to Louis's able management and sound common 
sense, we have escaped all perils which threatened, 
and are here, safe and well, and with all our be- 
longings. His energy is most wonderful, and he 
inspires all his men, so that when he is there 
everything goes ahead swimmingly. 

The second morning we got off at eight o'clock, 
as it looked like rain, and Louis was anxious to 
get us over a certain part of the mountain, where 
sudden snowstorms were frequent and dangerous, 
as soon as possible. We rode up hill and down 
hill as fast as we could, with his voice urging us 
to " hurry, ladies," in Arabic, and his cane as- 
sisting our horses from the rear, when necessary. 
It was bitterly cold, and we felt very miserable 
sometimes, but realizing that he knew what was 
best for us, we did just as he said, and at noon 
reached a place where all danger from a snow- 
storm was over, and we could take a needed rest 
and have lunch in peace and comfort. Louis was 
much happier when this mountain was left be- 

( 232 ) 

hind, and sang his Arabic songs as he rode on his 
coal-black charger, all the rest of the day. That 
night it was very cold in camp, as we were sur- 
rounded by snow mountains, but braziers in the 
tents made us very comfortable and I never slept 
better in my life. The scenery all that day was 
wonderfully grand and beautiful, and we had the 
Mount Lebanon range, with its white crest, in full 
view. The third day was easier and warmer, but 
as we wanted to gain enough time to see the grand 
ruins of the Baalbec Temples, and still reach 
Beirut on Thursday, we rose earlier than usual 
and were in our saddles at 7.30. We climbed the 
Anti-Lebanon mountains first and then rode over 
the range, and had an easy morning, at the same 
time getting over the ground quite fast. We 
reached Baalbec at 11.30 and had our lunch in- 
side the ruins. In fact, we spent the whole after- 
noon there, seeing the wonderful old ruins. This 
temple dates back to about 200 years after the 
Christian era, and it was built on the site of a 
still older temple, supposed by some to have 
been the Tower of Babel. The ruins are more 
perfect than many we have seen, and have a great 
many granite columns still standing, and the cor- 
nices still show much fine carving. We enjoyed 
wandering around here very much, and fortu- 
nately we had a lovely day for it. Baalbec is a 
town of 5000 inhabitants and is 3860 feet above 
the level of the sea. With its magnificent ruins 
it is a most picturesque spot, and the Lebanon 
range, with its crest of dazzling snow, gives a 

( '^ZZ ) 
grand and beautiful setting to the gray piles of 
stone in the temple. 

On leaving Baalbec we had a smooth car- 
riage road all the rest of the way, and came along 
the valley between the Anti-Lebanon and the Le- 
banon ranges, whose tops are white, and whose 
sides are a mass of colors, from the different 
colors of earth, stone, verdure, and wild flowers. 
We camped high up on the hillside that night, 
and the wind nearly blew my tent down over my 
head. I felt a very strong wind on my head, and 
getting up to see what was the matter, found that 
some of the tent pins had given way, so I called 
for assistance, and a mysterious figure in a white 
turban came and mended my house. Yesterday 
morning, our last day, we left camp in the rain, 
and climbing for several hours were actually in 
the clouds, as well as rain and sleet. Oh, it was 
cold, but after reaching the top we began to go 
down, and in a short time the storm was all be- 
hind us, and we emerged into blue skies and 
sunshine, with Beirut and the beautiful Medi- 
terranean before us. After lunch our road was 
all down hill, and we did not like it, — thump, 
thump, thump on the hard road, until we wel- 
comed a stony by-path with delight. Miss Mer- 
riam said it reminded her of the curse of answered 
prayers, which, when they come, are not at all 
satisfactory, or what we want, after all. Here we 
had been longing for weeks for a smooth road, 
and now that we had it we were not pleased. We 
came into Beirut with flying colors, literally, for 

( ^34 ) 
at luncheon time we had bedecked our horses 
with all their giddy trappings, and ribbons be- 
sides, and we made quite a fine procession as we 
rode through the streets. Louis had written to 
this hotel for rooms for us, so we were very soon 
settled, but Louis would not leave us to go to 
his family until our luggage had arrived and had 
been placed in our rooms. We were all very 
tired after Rye long days of riding, and I found 
it impossible to write last night, but sent the 
cablegram " abjure." We have borne the trip 
wonderfully well and are all quite well, but thin- 
ner, for the time being. Our trunks are just com- 
ing. They have been taken care of in Louis's 
own house all these weeks, and he has sent them 
over and probably is not far off himself. Alice 
has done splendidly on the journey ; has ridden 
with ease and has been well and in good spirits 
all the time. If I had known the kind of roads 
we were to have in Palestine, I would have ex- 
pected her to give out on the way ; but she has 
stood the test quite as well as any of us. Mrs. 
Aiken and her sister. Miss Dodge, also Miss 
Merriam, leave on Sunday for Constantinople, 
and the other three girls will go to Italy with 
us, in about a week from now, or when the next 
steamer leaves. It is balmy here and the sur- 
roundings are beautiful. Our rooms look out 
upon the Mediterranean, with only the street 
between us and the water. We feel that it would 
be lovely to stay here a month, but have not the 
time to spare. Our trip through the Holy Land 

( 235 ) 
has been a grand success, and we have had a 
delightful time all the way through, in spite of 
bad weather, sometimes, and hard roads. I rode 
the same horse for eighteen days, and did not 
make his back sore. Either he must be very 
tough, or I am a good rider. Thirty-two days 
since we reached Jaffa, and twenty of them have 
been spent in the saddle, and we still live to tell 
the tale ! 

I had twenty-seven letters yesterday, and have 
so much news in one dose that my mind can 
scarcely retain it all. Am so sorry to hear of 
Mr. Richardson's death, and of Bridget's severe 
illness. Hope she is doing well now, and will 
write her as soon as possible. We hear from 
Dolly that Mrs. Hey wood died a few weeks 

This is only my ninth letter this month, but 
it has been almost impossible to write letters on 
this trip, and the other ladies have not written 
half as many as I have. 1 am so glad you had 
such a delightful time in Eddy, and that you are 
so well. I hope the change did Will a great 
deal of good too. Alice and Kate send much 
love to both of you. I will close this letter now, 
and will write Will to-morrow and continue my 
story. It seems as if I had failed to say the 
most important things, but what can you expect 
when I rose at six o'clock and have not yet had 
my breakfast ? With much love. 
Your affectionate wife, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

( ^36 ) 

Hotel d' Orient, Beirut 
April 23, 1893. 

My dear Will : 

I tried to write to you last night but was too 
tired, and so am up at 6.30 this morning. I 
find it easy enough to rise at this hour, as we had 
very early hours all through our trip across Pal- 
estine and Syria, and I wake at the usual time 
still. It will take a good many mornings of early 
rising to get up my correspondence, since receiv- 
ing twenty-seven letters on my arrival here on 

1 wrote your father quite a long letter on Fri- 
day morning before breakfast. Directly after- 
wards Louis came for us and we all went to the 
bank to get money to finish paying up our in- 
debtedness to him. It almost caused a cessation 
of business at the bank, and there was consterna- 
tion there when they found that we all wanted 
our money in French gold. They sent out to 
buy the gold, and finally, after telling us we 
must come back in the afternoon, and our being 
quite decided about having our money then, they 
managed to find the gold for us. After the busi- 
ness with Louis and Michael was settled, then 
there was the business of feeing eighteen men, 
who were our muleteers, waiters, cook, etc., on 
the trip. The money was put into one pile, and 
Louis arranged the distribution of it, according 
to their merits and responsibility. As he an- 
nounced the amount to be given each one, Alice 
wrote the name on a paper, Louis handed the 

( m ) 

money to me, and I wrapped it up. Then when 
all this was arranged, the ladies were all called 
and we went downstairs to the entrance of the 
courtyard, where all the men were assembled, 
and as Louis called the names the men came up 
and received each one his package, from either 
Alice or me. Then Louis shook hands with all 
his men, and most of them came forward to shake 
hands with us. It was quite a scene, and rather 
affecting, too. 

Yesterday morning we all went to the photo- 
grapher to get a group taken in our good clothes, 
and they seem to think it is going to be a suc- 
cess. The pictures which were taken in Damascus 
have arrived, and are very good too. 

Yesterday afternoon we took a drive down to 
the Dog River, and had a very pleasant time. 
Afterwards Louis took us to call on his family. 
He has a wee wife, a nice old mother, a charm- 
ing daughter who is a bride of about five months, 
and a handsome son-in-law. The daughter came 
to greet us, dressed in her wedding dress, white 
silk trimmed with lace and orange blossoms, and 
wearing diamonds. They were very lovely to 
us, treated us to lemonade and Turkish coffee, 
and took us into the garden and gave us beau- 
tiful roses and other flowers, and lemons. The 
house is large and very nicely furnished. I ex- 
pected to find that Louis had a comfortable 
home, but did not think that everything would 
be so rich and even elegant. To-day we are 
going to call on Michael's family, and I am curi- 

( 238 ) 

ous to see what his home is like. Mrs. Aiken, 
her sister Miss Dodge, and Elizabeth Merriam 
sail to-day for Constantinople. The other three 
girls will sail on Wednesday for Italy, and then 
America, but the three tramps feel that Bei- 
rut is too charming a place to leave so soon, 
so we have decided to remain another week here, 
after all the others are gone, and give up going 
to Ischia, going on the principle that " A bird in 
the hand is worth two in the bush." I gave your 
message to the girls, and they were much pleased, 
and say they want ever so much to meet you, 
also wish to be cordially remembered to you. 
Louis said yesterday that he wished to send his 
kindest respects to Mr. McMillan and Mr. Will. 
He says he would like so much to go hunting 
with you, and that he hopes in two years, if not 
before, to have the pleasure of taking all of us 
up the Nile in a dahabeah. I hope so, too, for I 
know you and your father would enjoy it very 
much. Then we would start from Cairo, on our 
return, go to Jaffa by sail and steamer, then to 
Jerusalem by rail, and after making some of the 
carriage and horseback trips around there would 
return to Jaffa and sail for Beirut. From here 
we would take diligence to Damascus, and after 
spending a few days there, would come back, 
taking in Baalbek, by the way, and after that we 
could go on the continent for the summer. 
Does n't that sound attractive ? 

Kate was glad to hear you had received the 
letter about the pearl, for she feared it might 

( 239 ) 
have been lost. I hope you can come over with 
your father, my dear, and whether you do or 
not, I want you to bring or send me a good pic- 
ture of you and your father also, for Louis, who 
has begged that he might have them. He has 
become quite familiar with those I have of you 
both, and likes them very much. Please do not 
forget this, for I have promised them to him. 

The weather is perfect, and our view of the 
Mediterranean from our windows and balcony is 
too lovely for any description to do it justice. I 
do hope Bridget is getting well fast. Poor girl, 
she has had a hard time, and I am so sorry for 
her. Remember me to both the girls, please. 

From your letters and your father's, you seem 
to have had a gay time in New Mexico, but by 
this time I suppose you have both settled down 
to business in good earnest, so that the three 
tramps can have a good time over here. Well, 
we have worked pretty hard ourselves some days, 
especially when we have ridden thirty miles on 
horseback, up and down mountains over the 
worst places you can imagine. But we have en- 
joyed it all very, very much. Your father never 
could have stood what we have been through in 
the past month, and I have lost a good many 
pounds, only to regain them now, when we do 
not have so much exercise. Kate proposes that 
your father should put the ^looo wager to my 
credit immediately, while I am so much thinner, 
which perhaps would be a very good idea. 
Much love to both of you, and many thanks for 

( 240 ) 

your three sweet letters which I found here on 
my arrival. Take good care of yourself 
Your loving mother, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Hotel d' Orient, Beirut, 
April 26, 1893. 

My dear William : 

It is only seven o'clock, but I am dressed and 
sitting down to write to you before breakfast. 
I find that early in the morning is the only time 
in which I can be uninterrupted, for after the 
day once begins there are so many distractions. 
To-day the other three girls leave us, Mary and 
Janet Coe and Emily Choate. They go to Italy, 
and we may see them there before they sail for 
America, the latter part of May. We will miss 
them very much, but thought we would rather 
stay here and rest than try to go to Ischia or to 
Castellammare, just for one week. The weather 
is delightful here, and I am sure Italy can have 
no more balmy air than this. I am all right now, 
but have had a severe sore throat for some days, 
which made me feel very ill. There are black 
clouds this morning, but I hope the girls will 
not have a stormy getting off, nor a rough 
voyage. They dread leaving us as much as we 
dread having them go. They are such charming 
girls ! I wish you knew them. It seems odd to 
think how our fortunes have been united ever 
since our saihng on the Ems. Our first impres- 
sion of the quartette was intense admiration for 

( 241 ) 
the way in which they bore the loss of their lug- 
gage. We thought them very brave and plucky 
then, and do so still. 

Now that our journey is over and we do not 
rush about sight-seeing, my letters will seem very 
tame to you ; in fact I hardly know how to go 
about composing a letter. Last evening Dr. 
Bliss of the Beirut Medical College here, and his 
daughter, Mrs. Dale, came to call upon us. We 
found them very charming people, and they 
knew John Fisher very well indeed. It must be 
delightful to live in Beirut. The people are 
so pleasant and intelligent, and the town and 
its surroundings so very beautiful. From my 
window I can look on the blue Mediterranean 
and snow mountains, without changing my posi- 

I have had a lot of letters since arriving here. 
Edith Smith, Dolly Holden, Mrs. Bixby, Mrs. 
Sawyer, Hattie Caldwell, Lucie Webber, Jennie 
Cavers, Clara and Mrs. Thornburgh, have all 
been represented, and I am going to try to get 
once around among my friends, but with the few 
chances I have had for writing it seems rather 
doubtful. However, when we go to Italy per- 
haps there may be more opportunity. 

Alice and Kate are real well, and seem to have 
stood our hard journey across country quite as 
well as the very strongest among us. The more 
I think about it, the more I realize what an 
undertaking it was, and how fortunate we were 
in having a private party and dragoman instead 

( 242 ) 

of going with Cook or Gaze. But I would n*t 
have missed one minute of the trip for anything, 
and we did have such a good time with each 
other. We are quite belles here, for we have 
three dragomans devoted to us, — Louis, of 
course, and Michael, his assistant, who both live 
in Beirut, and then Joseph, the second drago- 
man on the steamer Rameses the Great. He 
brought two French generals across the country, 
and we met in Jerusalem, Damascus, and now 
here, where he lives. He wants us to go to his 
house and have a cup of tea, and of course we 
accepted, for we want to see as much of Syrian 
life as possible. Our group seems to be quite a 
success, so that when you see all our pictures you 
will have a pretty good idea of our party. I have 
sent a newspaper and the camping and rainy day 
pictures wrapped up in it. Hope they will reach 
you safely. I have asked Mrs. Lavin to get 
some rooms for us near them if she can, so that 
we may not waste much time going back and 
forth. It will be such a pleasure to see them 
again, and I only hope they will not have gone 
to Milan before we get there. I must write to 
Lucie this morning, but have not had a letter 
from Gertrude since January 23, and which I 
answered ages ago. I suppose Mrs. Scarritt has 
my letter before now. Our letters crossed each 
other, so we are even. The little Fishers are 
stirring, so there is hope that we will have break- 
fast before very long. What an awfully stupid 
letter, you will say, and I quite agree with you. 

( 243 ) 

Well, your vacation is over and you are set- 
tled down at home again. I am glad you had 
such a pleasant party and such a good time, and 
are so well. I hope Will is well and strong, too. 
Now we are looking forward to June 20 and to 
meeting you in Queenstown. Make your ar- 
rangements with Gertrude and Lucie as to where 
they will join us, for we think of going to Lon- 
don and not to Paris, before we meet you. Kate 
is very anxious to be a week or two in London 
and get some dressmaking done, besides some 
other errands, but we are not quite sure whether 
we can get to London without going by way of 
Paris; will find out when we reach Italy. We 
sail on the French line to Alexandria, May 3, 
then change to another steamer for Italy, and it 
is all very hazy as yet about the time it will take, 
etc., but we expect to reach Florence about May 
10. You had better send your letters from now 
on to the Alliance Bank line, Liverpool, and 
notify the friends. 

We must call at Turner's in Naples, if possi- 
ble, for any letters you may have sent there. 
Our letters have come all right so far, and we 
can tell better from here about changing the ad- 
dress than you can in America. Well, I must 
stop and get this ready to send off to the mail. 
Alice and Kate send much love to you and Will. 
I hope Bridget is doing well and will soon be 
all right again. Remember me to both Bridget 
and Lizzie. With much love .to you and Will, 
Your loving wife, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

( 244 ) 

House of Mansour, Beirut, 
April 29, 1893. 
My dear William : 

Since my last letter to you on the 26th, we 
have had an entirely new experience, in which 
you will be very much interested. But first I 
will tell you about the departure of Mary and 
Janet Coe, and Emily Choate. They sailed on 
Wednesday afternoon, and we all went over in a 
small boat to the steamer to see them comfort- 
ably settled. Our luggage was sent off during 
the afternoon, and when we came on shore again 
Louis took us to his house, where we are to stay 
a week, until we leave for Italy. Knowing how 
lonely we would be at the hotel after the girls had 
gone, we wanted to go to some smaller place than 
the hotel, and we also wanted to see something 
of Syrian home life, so when Louis said we could 
come to his house we were delighted. I told you 
of our visit to his family on Saturday last, how 
nice they all are, and about the handsome, cosy 
home. Well, we have been here over two days 
now, and are more and more charmed with the peo- 
ple and our surroundings. We are really a part 
of the family in everything excepting our meals, 
and they insist on serving us by ourselves in 
courses and in great state. They give us the 
most delicious things to eat. The cook is an ex- 
cellent one, and we have one of the waiters who 
was in camp with us to serve us, and a young girl 
besides. Madame Mansour, the mother, Madame 
Louis, the wife, and Madame Joseph Aboo, the 

( 245 ) 
daughter, received us with open arms. They 
load us with the most magnificent roses from 
their garden, feed us with nespoli from their 
own trees, and are devoted to us. Ferida, the 
daughter and only child, is a very attractive girl, 
a bride of a few months, and the pride and 
delight of her father's heart. She has been well 
educated, speaks French, and does any amount 
of fancy work. Kate and Ferida are chums, and 
Kate is teaching Ferida to embroider. She is 
very quick and is learning rapidly. We get along 
beautifully, in spite of the difference in language, 
and then Louis is generally near to interpret for 

The house is as cosy and pretty as any one 
could wish, but it is of course in Syrian fashion, 
with great divans running around the rooms, and 
with many and large windows, but with few pic- 
tures or decorations. Syrians like a great deal of 
light. The other evening three young men, bro- 
thers of Louis's son-in-law, who is very nice in- 
deed, came to call upon the family and upon us, 
and it did look very odd to see all the men sit- 
ting around the room wearing their fezes. In 
saluting they touch the head, but do not remove 
the hat, and in all the months we have known 
Louis we have scarcely ever seen him without his 
fez. After several hints from Louis that night, 
we found that we were expected to say good-night 
to the callers and go to our rooms, otherwise they 
would have stayed all night. 

We are enjoying this novel life very much 

( 246 ) 
indeed, and will be sorry to have it over. We go 
down town nearly every morning to do shop- 
ping, etc., and generally have a drive in the 
afternoon. It is a beautiful country, and Beirut, 
having both mountains and sea, is a most charm- 
ing spot. It is a large place, containing about 
200,000 people and many handsome residences 
and public buildings. The Medical College 
grounds and buildings are very fine, standing on 
a hill overlooking the sea. The weather is per- 
fect, sunny and warm during the day, but cool 
mornings and evenings. From one of my win- 
dows I am looking out upon green gardens below 
and snow mountains above, and the sun is shin- 
ing brightly on me. The other windows look 
out on the court, where Louis has built a num- 
ber of small houses, which he rents to poor but 
nice people, who all seem to take a great deal 
of interest in us. The garden is full of trees, 
shrubs, and flowers, and the air is sweet with the 
perfume of the roses and orange blossoms. I am 
going to bring some nespolo seeds home with 
me to have planted at Eddy. It seems to me 
they could be raised there nicely, — anyway we 
can try it. 

We now hope to get a steamer May 4, which 
will take us to Italy without too many changes. 
We will probably have to stay a day or two in 
Alexandria and then go to Brindisi from there, 
taking train from Brindisi to Florence, without 
going to Naples. Boats are such uncertain things 
over here that one can never tell long before what 

( 247 ) 
can be done. I have been waiting for an hour, 
and now Louis has just called Alice and Kate. 
The family have been up for hours. They are 
early risers and very industrious. My camping 
habits still cling to me, so I generally get up at 
six and do any writing or work which may be 
necessary before the others are stirring. A mail 
comes in to-day, so we will hope to get some 
letters from home. We are going to pay the 
same here as at the hotel, and very properly too, 
for we get a great deal more for our money here 
than we did at the hotel. We told Louis we 
would not come to his house unless we could 
pay hotel rates, so he finally consented to our 
doing it. 

I hope Bridget is doing well, but cannot help 
feeling anxious until I hear again. Hoping you 
are all well and happy, with much love to both 
Will and you, and warm remembrances to all 

Your loving wife, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Alexandria, Egypt, 
May 7, 1893. 

My dear Father : 

When I wrote you last we were in Beirut, 
Syria ; now we are in Egypt again for a few days. 
It does not seem possible that it is less than four 
months since we landed in Alexandria for the first 
time ; I feel so wonderfully well acquainted with 
the country and the people that 1 seem to have 

( 248 ) 
lived in this part of the world always. I am afraid 
that the Continent will look very tame to us when 
we no longer see the picturesque and gayly col- 
ored Oriental dress on the streets of the cities 
we visit. However, we will get used to European 
clothes as we became accustomed to eastern cos- 
tumes, and it will be very delightful to meet old 
friends in Florence, Paris, and London, as we ex- 
pect to do in a few weeks. I cannot begin to tell 
you of the good time we had in Beirut, or how 
sorry we were to part from Louis and his family. 
They were so good to us, and we feel that we 
have left true friends behind us in leaving them. 
We went to the American church last Sunday 
morning, and heard a beautiful sermon and the 
old familiar hymns for the first time since leav- 
ing Cairo, the middle of March. Beirut became 
rather warm before we left it, although it is situ- 
ated on the sea, and we could not have remained 
there comfortably much longer. We sailed on 
the Austrian Lloyd steamer May 4, and arrived 
here this morning. We stopped a few hours both 
at Jaffa and Port Said, but went on shore only 
at the latter place. The sea was perfectly smooth 
all the way, the weather perfect, the ship large, 
well managed, clean and comfortable, the service 
excellent, and the table all any one could de- 
sire. We stay here two days, coaling up and 
taking in cargo. Tuesday morning we start for 
Brindisi and Trieste. The steamer makes no pro- 
vision for passengers while in this port, so we 
are staying at the hotel, where we are nicely set- 

( 249 ) 
tied, and will go on board to-morrow evening. 
We will reach Brindisi, Italy, on Friday, and 
Trieste, Austria, on Saturday. From there we 
connect with a boat for Venice, and after spend- 
ing a couple of days in that fascinating city will 
take train for Florence, where we hope to arrive 
about the i8th. So far, our water journey has 
been a real pleasure trip, and I hope it will con- 
tinue to be so all the rest of the way. At Port 
Said we had a row in the harbor and a little way 
into the Suez Canal. A young Englishman, who 
has lived in Beirut and is on his way to Venice, 
invited us to go with him, and it was a great 
pleasure to us. There are a few very pleasant 
people on the steamer, and they are all at our 
table. The others are Germans, — men, women, 
and priests, all fat and ugly. The weather is 
lovely here, neither hot nor cold, but bright and 
beautiful. It sounded very cheery this morning 
to hear the church chimes, and in listening to 
them I could scarcely believe myself in a Mo- 
hammedan country. When we reach Italy we 
will feel as if quite near home. When we real- 
ize that it takes ten days to go from Beirut to 
Venice, not allowing for any delays whatever, we 
feel how far from home and friends we have been. 
Now the distance will grow shorter each day, 
until, having reached Florence, our letters will go 
to America in two weeks instead of four. It will 
make quite a difference, and our letters will seem 
almost Hke telegraphic dispatches, they will ar- 
rive with such speed and promptness. 

( 250 ) 

We are looking forward to the end of June as 
the time when William will probably arrive, and 
our arrangements are already made to meet him 
at Liverpool. The three young ladies who left 
Beirut eight days before us were in this hotel, 
and sailed for Malta and Naples last Wednesday. 
They are to reach Naples to-morrow, and we hope 
to see them in Florence before they start for 
America. We are all well, I am thankful to say. 
Perhaps the reason I have said nothing about my 
health was because I was always well. I am much 
thinner than when I left home, owing to the hard 
trip across Syria and Palestine, but otherwise am 
perfectly well, so you need not worry about me. 
After this my letters will be very humdrum 
affairs, for having once written up Florence, and 
the Continent generally, it will not be necessary 
to do it again. 

I suppose the Chicago Exposition has opened 
grandly, and the whole country is interested and 
excited over it. Cairo and Beirut will be well 
represented there, and I will be more interested 
in seeing that part of the great show than in any 
of the home productions. We are going for a 
drive, after a while, so I must bid you good-by. 
Much love to you and to the family and friends. 
Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

( 251 ) 

Mediterranean Sea, Steamer Vorwaerts, 
May 12, 1893. 

My dear Father : 

Since writing you on Sunday from Alexandria, 
we have been coming steadily nearer home and 
friends, but we are still quite a long distance from 
our native land. Monday was a very hot day in 
Alexandria, being 91 at noon and over 100 be- 
tween two and three o'clock, but being a dry heat 
we did not feel it so very much, after all. 

About five o'clock in the afternoon we came 
on board our good ship again, and besides our- 
selves there was just one passenger who spent the 
night on board. Tuesday morning at nine we 
sailed, and as soon as we were out of the harbor 
we found ourselves in a rough sea which soon 
sent everybody below. At dinner, Tuesday even- 
ing, only ^ve out of the thirty passengers came 
to the table, and we were not among them. Wed- 
nesday morning the sea was smooth again, and 
has been almost like a mirror ever since. We 
have enjoyed sitting on deck very much, for the 
air is balmy and delicious, and the canvas awn- 
ing keeps off sun, wind, and moisture, while the 
deck chairs are most comfortable. 

This morning early we arrived at Brindisi on 
the coast of Italy. It is where we had intended 
leaving the boat, but the long railway journey we 
should have to Florence so discouraged us that 
we made up our minds to go on to Venice. We 
will reach Trieste, on the Austrian coast, at three 
o'clock to-morrow afternoon, and will then change 

( ^52 ) 
to another boat, which will land us in Venice on 
Sunday morning. From Venice we will only be 
a few hours from Florence by rail. Nothing 
could be more delightful than this whole voy- 
age from Beirut, with the exception of that one 
day after leaving Alexandria. We consider our- 
selves most fortunate in having taken passage 
from Beirut on the only boat which has gone 
directly through to Trieste this year. Being so 
late in the year there are very few passengers, 
and the l)oat is all the more pleasant on that ac- 
count. Those who are here are very agreeable, 
and we have made some charming acquaintances, 
but we always find nice people wherever we go, 
and have come to the conclusion that there are a 
great many such in the world. When we get to 
Florence and realize that it only takes our letters 
two weeks to go or come, we will feel quite near 
you all, but I fear my letters will not be very 
interesting to you, for there will be nothing new 
and strange to relate. 

Mrs. Fisher and I have been comparing our 
journals and talking over the experiences of the 
past few months, and we became so excited and 
enthusiastic over them that we thought it would 
be charming to go all over them again. Who 
knows, perhaps we may come over here again 
some day. If the ocean would behave as well as 
the Mediterranean has for the past week, it would 
be mere play to cross it. 

We are getting some letters ready to mail at 
Trieste to-morrow, and I will not close my epistle 

( '^S2^ ) 
now, in case there should be something more to 
say before that time. It is almost time for after- 
noon tea, and it is astonishing how welcome the 
four meals daily are to all of us. 

Venice, Italy, May 14. 
Yesterday morning was rather uncomfortable 
on the boat, as the wind carried us to one side, 
although it was not rough. By the time we neared 
the Austrian coast and came to a level keel again, 
it was time to get packed up, ready to change 
boats at Trieste, so I did not have an opportunity 
to finish my letter and mail it in Austria, as I 
had intended. We reached Trieste about four 
o'clock yesterday, but by the time we had trans- 
ferred all our belongings across the harbor to the 
corresponding Austrian Lloyd boat for Venice 
it was six o'clock, so we went on shore with an 
English judge and his wife, and had dinner at 
a hotel. During the evening we had a ride in 
the street cars, a walk on one of the promenade 
streets, and attended a concert at one of the cafes. 
Our boat did not sail until midnight, so we pre- 
ferred staying on shore as long as possible. We 
had a very comfortable night, and at six this 
morning were coming into Venice, which never 
looks so well as when approached by water. It 
was a lovely morning, and the city on the water 
looked most fascinating and picturesque. We are 
nicely situated here, but our English friends are 
at another hotel near by, as we could not all be 
accommodated in the same one, on account of 

( 254 ) 
the city being quite full of visitors at present. 
My room overlooks the " Grand Canal," and 
just opposite my windows, only a few rods away, 
is anchored a royal yacht with the Princess of 
Wales on board. The water is alive with gay 
gondolas, sailboats with gay-colored sails, ferry 
boats, and great steamers anchored here and there. 
It is a sight well worth seeing, and once seen, 
would be always remembered. Kate has gone out 
to the great church of St. Mark with Judge and 
Mrs. Harnnett. Alice is resting, and after a bath 
and fresh clothes I feel equal to attending to some 
of my neglected correspondence. 

We will be here perhaps until Wednesday, and 
can go to Florence in about nine hours, so about 
Thursday we will be domesticated there for a 
couple of weeks. It is almost exactly ten years 
since 1 was here before, and everything looks 
quite natural. 

Love to all friends and relatives, and a great 
deal for your dear self. 

Your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Hotel Royal Danieli, Venice, 
May 17, 1893. 

My dear William : 

I wrote Will on Monday, when we had scarcely 
begun to enjoy Venice. I do not know why, but 
it seems so much more beautiful and fresh and 
fascinating than it did ten years ago, and more 
wonderful too. Perhaps it is because we have 

( 255 ) 
had perfect weather, beautiful sunshine, and fresh 
ocean breezes ; and if you remember it was hot 
and rainy when we were here before. Then I 
was sick at that time, and now am perfectly 

Monday a. m. Kate and I went to one of 
the largest lace and brocade manufactories on 
the Grand Canal, where we saw girls making the 
finest of point laces, and most beautiful silk em- 
broideries. The show and sales rooms are very 
tempting indeed, but I only got a few little things 
for myself, and some brocade for sofa cushions 
for the house. At noon we came back in our 
gondola for Alice, and went over to the square to 
Florian's famous restaurant for lunch. In the 
afternoon Mr. and Mrs. Harnnett joined us and 
we went over to the Island of Murano to see one 
of the glass manufactories. We were allowed to 
see the workers shaping the melted glass into all 
sorts of beautiful vases, which was most interest- 
ing. We also visited an old church, where there 
is an old mosaic floor which compares well with 
that in St. Mark's. Then we came home, having 
enjoyed the afternoon very much. St. Mark's 
church has been renovated since we saw it, and 
its frescoes and splendid mosaics, both inside 
and out, are now magnificent. The whole square 
is splendid with its great pillars at the entrance, 
the Doges' Palace, the grand old church, the 
clock tower, and bell tower. 

Yesterday morning Mr. Harnnett came for us 
before eight o'clock, and as the bells clanged out 

( 256) 
the hour we were up among them in the bell 
tower. We had a splendid view of the city, canal, 
and lagoons ; also the numerous islands, and the 
water craft everywhere, and got home at nine 
o'clock, just as Kate and Alice were ready for 
breakfast. Afterwards they went out into the 
square, but I stayed at home to write some letters. 
At noon I joined them at another famous restau- 
rant on the square, and we had lunch there. At 
two o'clock the Harnnetts met us and we took a 
gondola over to the " Lido." It was a delicious 
air on the water, and when we reached the island 
we found horse cars and two or three carriages. 
We patronized the former, and rode through a 
leafy arch formed by locust trees in full bloom, 
across the island to the ocean side, where there 
are great concert rooms and verandas overlook- 
ing the bathing beach. The music was going on, 
so we took seats near the water, ordered some tea 
and lemonade, and while listening to the music 
watched the people and bathers. We got home 
about five, and after dinner Alice, Kate, and I went 
over to the square, and up into the show-rooms 
of one of the finest glass works. They were 
lighted by electricity, and I never imagined there 
could be such beautiful glass as we saw there. 
Mr. and Mrs. Harnnett were to have joined us 
somewhere in the square, but we missed them, so 
about nine o'clock we had an ice and came home. 
This is another beautiful morning, and we will 
have another fascinating day here, before starting 
for Florence to-morrow morning. The journey 

( 257 ) 
over there will be very pleasant, I am sure, start- 
ing as we will at ten o'clock and getting there 
at 6 p. M. We can endure eight hours on the 
train very comfortably. It is the night travel, in 
these countries, that is so wearing. Just after an 
early dinner last night, we three took a gondola 
and went the whole length of the Grand Canal, 
then back as far as the Rialto, and home by the 
little canals. Our boatman, who has now been 
with us since Monday, showed us all the noted old 
palaces. We saw where Desdemona lived, where 
Lord Byron lived. Browning's palace, the place 
where Victor Emmanuel stayed twice, when he was 
here ; Lucrezia Borgia's palace, and many others. 
We also saw the first palace ever built in Venice, and 
it did look very ancient. We rowed around the 
royal yacht, but did not see the Princess. The 
yacht is still here, although we heard it was to 
leave yesterday. We have a good deal to do to- 
day, and do not expect to meet the Harnnetts 
until evening. They are so pleasant and compan- 
ionable that they remind me of Mr. and Mrs. 
Sevier, who spent some weeks traveling with 
us three years ago. When English people are 
nice, they are usually very nice, and we have 
had some very pleasant experiences in that 

I wish you might be here; you would enjoy 
it so much, especially the gondola part of our 
life here. We have such a nice gondolier, and 
his name is Louis, so we have no trouble in 
remembering it. Our hotel is several squares 

( 258 ) 

from the Grand Hotel, according to home reck- 
oning. The bridges over the little canals are very- 
frequent, and the side canals run in all sorts of 
directions. Even the Grand Canal is very serpen- 
tine in form, so that when we go the whole length 
of it, and are considerably over an hour in doing 
it, by taking side canals we can reach the hotel in 
a very few minutes. I begin to think we may 
find Florence rather hot, and if it should prove 
so, we may go on to London sooner than we had 
planned. I am so anxious to get letters, and yet 
rather dread it, for fear of hearing something un- 
pleasant, I know not what. However, I will not 
worry, but make up my mind that everything 
will be all right. 

Alice and Kate send love to you and Will. 
Give my warm love to the dear boy, and accept 
a great deal yourself, from 

Your loving wife, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Pension Chapman, Florence, Italy, 
May 21, 1893. 
My dear Father : 

I found three letters from you, two of them 
having inclosures from Ella and one from Grace 
Kingston. The dates were April 7, 14, and May i . 
It looks as if I had missed one letter between 
April 14 and May i. Don*t you find my plan 
of numbering the letters a good one ? and then 
if one goes astray you know it at once. 

It was very pleasant, after having no news for 

( ^S9 ) 
nearly a month, to learn that you were all well 
less than three weeks ago. William and Will 
expect to sail for Europe June 14, and our plans 
are being completed for meeting them in Liver- 
pool, as we did three years ago. My last letter 
to you was finished in Venice a week ago to-day. 
We enjoyed that charming city very much, and 
spent a good deal of our time in a gondola, 
gliding over the Grand Canal, between the sohd 
rows of handsome old palaces, which now are 
either hotels or the residences of ordinary people. 
We did not try to do much sight-seeing, none of 
us feeling quite equal to great exertion, but we 
visited a large glass manufactory on one of the 
numerous islands of the Adriatic and saw the 
skillful workmen mould the melted glass into 
many odd and beautiful shapes. The great square 
of St. Mark's, with the Doges' Palace, the mag- 
nificent church of St. Mark's, and its tall and 
stately bell tower, seemed even more wonderful 
than it did ten years ago, and the rows of fasci- 
nating shops around the square are very tempting 
to a lover of pretty things. Our English friend, 
Mr. Harnnett, climbed with me to the top of the 
bell tower, and just as we reached the last step 
the bells rang out the hour of eight o'clock. We 
had a magnificent view of the city and all its 
devious waterways built of canals, great and small, 
and channels leading seaward. We spent nearly 
an hour up there, examining the view from every 
point of the compass, and enjoying the pure fresh 
air we had from the sea. At nine o'clock I was 

( i6o ) 

back in our hotel, ready to take breakfast with 
the Fishers. 

Thursday morning we left Venice with regret, 
for we were leaving pleasant friends behind, as 
well as a beautiful city, and after eight hours of 
comfortable journey on the cars, reached Florence 
at 6.30 in the evening. We found that our friends 
Mr. and Mrs. Lavin had gone away, but two of 
the young ladies of our Palestine party were here 
in this house. We were the more delighted to 
find them, because we scarcely hoped for that 
pleasure, as we were ten days longer in reaching 
Florence than we had expected to be. We have 
had a nice visit with them, and will miss them 
sadly when they go away this afternoon. We will 
be here until May 31, probably, and will then go 
to Paris by way of Milan and Basle, stopping a 
night in each place, instead of going straight 
through and having a night on the train. Our 
railroad journey from Venice to Florence was our 
third on the cars since we left New York. Con- 
sidering what poor sailors we are, we certainly 
have done a good deal of traveling by water 
during the past five months. June 7 we expect 
to be in London, where we hope to be with our 
friends the H oldens, from Batavia, for ten days 
or more, and then we will get to Liverpool not 
later than the 20th in order to be on deck when 
the good ship the Majestic comes in with William 
and Will on board, scanning the faces of the 
people on shore to discover the three tramps. I 
am so glad Will is coming over too, for he would 

( 26i ) 
have been rather forlorn if left at home by him- 

Here in Florence we mean to take things easy, 
and not do any sight-seeing, but we have lots of 
packing to do, as some of our trunks are to be 
shipped directly to Liverpool to avoid trouble 
with the customs at Paris, and then we have some 
shopping to do, and I at least have any number 
of letters to write. My mail contained thirty-four 
letters, and that means work for some time to 
come. I have not written half as many letters as 
I did three years ago ; it was simply impossible, 
especially on the Nile and in Palestine, to do any 
letter-writing which was not absolutely necessary, 
and if my friends think I have neglected them, 
I cannot help it. This is a lovely day, but we 
are not going out. It is pleasant to have reached 
a place where we can quietly remain in the house 
without feehng that we are missing the best thing 
in Europe. 

I wish I could see your dear face as soon as I 
see William and Will, but as that is out of the 
question, accept a great deal of love for you and 
all the friends and relatives. 

From your loving daughter, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Pension Chapman, Florence, Italy, 
May 28, 1893. 
My dear Will : 

I find that I have sent you one more letter 
than was credited to me on my book. If you had 

( 262 ) 

been away from your father I would have written 
to you more frequently, but knowing you were 
together and that you would read all my letters, 
it seemed unnecessary to write more than once a 
week, or ten days. I have had just 13 letters 
from you, and 28 from your father, have sent 31 
to your father, a letter to one of you every three 
days since leaving New York. We are all so glad 
that the time is drawing near when we shall see 
you again, and we will be on the dock to meet you 
as we were last time. I hope you will look as well 
as my friends tell me you do, and that the lovely 
summer we are going to have will do you lots of 
good in every way. 

We have just had a letter from Mary Coe, 
written as soon as they reached Paris, telling us 
their whole party would sail on Saturday, several 
days before they expected to start for America. 
So they are on the ocean now, and we could not 
send them a letter of good-by to the ship, as we 
had planned. 

I hope old Neptune will treat you well, com- 
ing over, but his mood is ever changeable, and 
you may find him in good humor and you may 
not. However, we will hope for the best, and 
that is all one can do anyway. 

Kate has written to you about the pearls and 
turquoise she has bought for you, and I am sure 
you will like them, they are so beautiful. Your 
father's photograph and yours are on the bureau 
opposite me ; and it makes me so glad, every time 
I look at them, to think of seeing you in less 

{ 263 ) 
than four weeks. Will we have a walk at Bettws- 
y-coed, do you think, as we did three years ago ? 
Do you remember the pace we took coming 
home ? a mile in fifteen minutes, I believe. I 
wonder if I could do it now. We are anticipating 
the pleasure we are to have the latter part of this 
week in meeting Gertrude, Lucie, and Mamie, 
also your friend, Billy Lavin. 

I was afraid to send this to St. Louis, for fear 
of missing you, but there may have been time for 
it to go there. Anyway, it will be a last greet- 
ing to you, ere you sail, and loving wishes for 
a " bon voyage" for you both. Hoping you will 
have the best trip you ever had, with a great 
deal of love. 

Your affectionate mother, 

Lizzie McMillan. 

Will write your father also, to the Windsor 

Basle, Switzerland, Hotel Victoria, 
June 2, 1893. 

My dear William : 

According to our plan, we left Florence on 
Wednesday, 31st, at 2.30 p. m. Miss Leggett 
came with us, as she wanted to get to Paris, and 
was very glad to come under the wing of people 
who knew how to travel, and to do it comfort- 
ably. At the station she introduced us to some 
friends of hers who had been very good to her in 
Greece, and they turned out to be Lucie Web- 
ber's friends, the Spragues, for whom we have 

( 264 ) 
been looking all winter. Unfortunately they 
were going to Venice and we to Milan, so w6 
only had a few minutes to chat, but at any rate, 
I can tell Lucie to-night that I have seen her 
friends at last. 

We had a severe thunderstorm at Florence, 
just as we were leaving, but having started early 
in order to attend to the luggage, we were not 
out in it. Wednesday afternoon we passed 
through Parma. Do you remember it was the 
first Italian city we ever visited, and what a funny 
old hotel it was there? We reached Milan at 
9.30 and went to a hotel in the Cathedral Square, 
as we wanted to see the church again. As soon 
as our rooms were secured, we all went over to 
the Arcade for a little while, knowing it would 
look finer at night than by day, and also fear- 
ing we would not have time to go there in the 
morning. Yesterday morning. Miss Leggettand 
I had breakfast at 7.30, and at eight were in the 
church, admiring its beauty and fine proportions ; 
already there were many people in the church, 
which was draped, as the fete of Corpus Christi 
was being celebrated, and a service was in progress 
in one of the chapels. There we went, and listened 
to the fine music for a while, and then we mounted 
to the roof, and took in the exquisite and elabo- 
rate work up there. The spires and the statues 
were more beautiful than I remembered them to 
be, but we had not long to enjoy them, as trains 
wait for no man. Downstairs we encountered 
Alice and Kate and soon we returned to the hotel. 

( 26s ) 
where the 'bus was waiting to take us to the sta- 
tion. We had a most delightful day yesterday. 
We had a boudoir car, and when we got in we 
found a gentleman in our compartment, whom 
we at first took to be English, and who we thought 
was not very much pleased to see four women 
with numerous bags invade his sanctuary. How- 
ever, we paid no attention to him, and presently, 
after carefully inspecting us, he made the first 
advances, in the way of some information, and 
then putting up the window for us. He turned 
out to be a Russian and a military attache of 
Washington, evidently some man of rank and 
importance, although we did not ascertain his 
name. He knows James. He was most pleasant 
and companionable all day, and added much to 
our enjoyment of the journey. He went on last 
night, and expected to reach London this p. m. 

We had magnificent scenery all day, which you 
can easily believe when I tell you that we saw 
Lakes Como, Lugano, Lucerne, and Zug, and 
had glimpses of snow mountains frequently. We 
arrived here at nine last night, and found the Vic- 
toria Hotel, just across the street from the station, 
very comfortable indeed. I am, as usual, writing 
while waiting breakfast for the others, and will 
mail this to-night at Paris, where we expect to be 
at six o'clock. We are to send a message to 
Gertrude, but will tell her not to meet us, as the 
station is a long distance from their house. Will 
add a few words on our arrival, and mail in the 
station if possible. 

( 266 ) 

May the winds and waves be very kind to you, 
and bring you to me in good health and spirits. 
Am longing to see you. 

Your loving wife, 

Lizzie McMillan, 

Alice and Kate were going to write to you last 

Paris, 6.16. 
All safe in Paris. The Lavins and Gertrude 
met us. All send love. Adieu. 


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